The Beginning of Our Former Daughter Colonies
Bessarabischer Heimatkalender, 1952, Landsmannschaft der Deutschen Aus Bessarabien, Stuttgart, Germany, 1952, pages 78-85
Compiled by Professor Christ Kalmbach
School in Lichtental
After we have published a paper about the emergence of our former mother colonies in the Heimatkalender 1951, now a description of the origin of our daughter colonies follows in the Heimatkalender of 1952.
When Hoffnungstal, the last mother colony, 1842, (see Heimatkalender 1951), was founded the Russian government stopped its settlement activities in Bessarabia. Now it paid attention to the development of immigrated settlers, to a proper community life in the recently founded villages, to the expansion of higher administrative offices (the Gebietsämter), to the educational system, etc.
However, as farmsteads were not allowed to be divided, a new generation without land arose soon due to the abundance of children of the settlers. These young people had to look out for themselves, how to proceed, or their fathers had to help them to go on. This happened as a rule by gathering in groups, people without land from several communities and by buying up farms of several thousand hectares in order to settle on it.
Thus, the independent settlement activity or inland settlements of the German immigrants began. It began at the end of the ‘50s of the 19th century and lasted until the end of the ‘20s of the 20th century and falls into three periods:
The first period lasted until the turn of the century i.e. until 1900. It is characterized in that the new settlers, themselves, were responsible for the settlements by leasing, without mediators, which had just been set up on leased land, were Mathildendorf and Josefsdorf. Later these estates were then mainly bought and the villages remained. In some cases however, the land could neither be bought nor leased and the new settlers had to give up their villages. Such new founded [colonies], which were given up again, were, for example, Neu-Teplitz, Neu-Leipzig, etc.
School in Krasna
The second period of the inland settlement began after 1900 and lasted until WWI. It differs from the first period in that now individual or small groups of financially sound men emerged as the governing body was responsible for settlement by buying up larger farmsteads, then enlisted new settlers and sold the land to them. Thus, the daughter colonies Wischinowka, Kolatschowka and many others came into being.
The third and last period of the independent settlement activities began after WWI and lasted until the end of the ‘20s. It was a result of the Bessarabian land reforms. Most readers of this description will still remember the inland settlements. The large estates were expropriated except for 100 remaining hectares. They [the estates] were divided among farmers without land and those with little land or less “acreage”. The villages which developed on these expropriated estates were called hectare villages probably because when they were founded the measurement for land, hectare, was introduced in Bessarabia.
And now sections of their founding are to follow from the chronicles of a number of daughter colonies. Among the communities from the first and second period are:
5. Korntal I
The community of Hoffnungsfeld was founded in 1864. The founders were largely from Wittenberg and Alt-Posttal; besides those alluded to, some families were from Neu-Elft (Ferechampnoise II) Friedenstal and Alt-Elft (Ferechampnoise I) and all were Evangelical-Lutheran.
The number of residents came to 312 persons upon resettlement in 1940.
The quantity of land in Hoffnungstal amounted to 1,911 desj. – 2,100 hectare, expropriated was 45 hectare.
The community Hoffnungsfeld was located in the southern part of the district of Cetatea Alba (formerly Akkerman) and was set up at the time on the former estate of “Gräfin von Almayda” [Countess of Almayda]. The soil was very good and, consequently, also the economic boom and the great expansion. Thus, the community Hoffnungsfeld has increased its land more than twice through deportation of the just founded villages of Parapara, Pomasan and Friedrichsdorf. The neighboring villages were: in the northeast, Deluilier, in the west, Burgegi, in the southeast, Baktschalia and in the South, Spaskol.
Hoffnungsfeld had to report only two cases of significant events: the cholera, which caused great devastations in the ‘80s and a poor harvest in 1899.
Prayer hall in Mannsburg
The country seat Seimeny belonged once to the controller of the royal household and privy counselor of the Kaiser who, however, was banished by Kaiser Alexander II because he had participated in a conspiracy in December, 1863. In 1867, Prince Wokonsky leased out the country seat Seimeny to German colonists of Cherson and Bessarabia.
The first lease holders and founders of the colony were from Alexanderhilf, Neuburg, Friedenstal, Alt-Arzis, Brienne, Neu-Arzis, Alt-Elft, Gnadental, Kulm, Teplitz, Dennewitz and Schabo
These leaseholders and founders of the colony of Seimental paid two rubles per desj. as rent for twelve years, the other fifteen years already six and eight rubles for the desj., until 1894. During these 27 years, many of those leaseholders immigrated to America. Many returned to their mother colonies and others purchased their own property. The first three years of leasing, from 1867-1869, were completely poor harvests so that many renters lost the courage because they could not build and had to go into debt. Many became poor until the year of 1870, when it produced a good harvest. Two more average good harvests followed until 1892, when the leaseholders suffered again many difficulties so that the region had to give support through money, food and bread.
Prince Wolkonsky was already dead and the lady of the land of Seimeny was his widow, a Hungarian by birth, a former chamber maid of the prince. She harassed, played the leaseholders and seized their harvest in 1893. She took also the proceeds of the harvest in 1894 for a ridiculously low price (45 Kopeks for a pound of barley) as repayment of the sum to be in arrears. Then Mr. Gasert and Mr. Főhl in Akkerman accepted responsibility on behalf of the community, paid the Princess and took over the harvest of the leaseholders at market price. The end of the lease holders of Seimeny was bad.
In the fall of 1894, Princess Lydia Wolkonski sold the land and the village of Seimeny to the then all too well known buyer, Gottfried Schulz, in Posttal for 120 rubles desj... Buyers from many villages in Bessarabia and Cherson were found shortly afterwards.
The colony of Seimeny, was on its own land, one of the best German colonies until WWI. It had an advantageous location on the Liman River, an even steppe, good soil, an excellent watering place for cattle from a powerful spring and the Liman River. (J. Meyer).
Church in Scholtoi
It was in the ‘70s of the previous century when space became too limited for the grandchildren and great grandchildren of the colonists, who had emigrated from Germany to the old colonies as Alt-Posttal, Wittenberg, Kulm, Brienne and others. At that time a real emigration fever seized a number of old colonists. The result of it was that at the turn of the ‘70s and ‘80s a lot of daughter colonies developed. Thus, 40 families set out and founded the daughter colony of Eigenfeld in 1880. It was located 22 kilometers north of the train station of Sarata on the left banks of the river Sarata, in a level, wide valley. The name Eigenfeld indicates that the property of 2,500 desj., which the community bought from the once in Odessa living farmer Rodi Ganati, was worked on until 1880 by people who were not allowed to call the property their “Eigenfeld”. That’s how it really was. They had set up a small village which is known under the name New-Paris on that place where today is Eigenfeld.
The leaseholders lived in rather shabby, largely poor sod houses. These shacks have been gradually torn down either by the leaseholders themselves or from the residents of Eigenfeld. Quickly, one after the other, large beautiful houses built of stones by the people of Eigenfeld followed the sod houses. These houses were laid out in a street, which ran from north to south. The actual story of Eingenfeld begins with the year 1880. In that year 40 families settled here as follows: from Alt-Posttal ten families, from Brienne eleven families, from Kulm nine families, from Katzbach two families, from Dennewitz one family from Alt-Elft two families, from Friedenstal one family, from Alt-Arzis one family, and from Wittenberg two families.
As it can be seen from this basic listing, the population of Eigenfeld was already rather mixed at the time.
In the ‘80s of the previous century, many families moved to America. Yet the community numbered 116 families who came from 17 different old colonies. The population of the daughter colony differs quite substantially from the population of an old colony in that aspect. Fortunately, all of these families lived on friendly terms; there were neither parties nor splits in the community. The residents got so used to each other over a period of time, that not even Low-Germans could be differentiated from the Swabians. The Swabian culture has penetrated the Low-German language and its peculiarities, so much, that Eigenfeld was included in the Swabian villages. (W. Schőch).
Gnadenfeld was founded in 1881. Its name was chosen out of gratefulness for the good harvest in the year of settling.
Forty-seven founder families with their 301 (304?) members came from the following communities: Kulm 20, Neu-Elft 12, Tarutino 4, Paris 2, Teplitz 2, Alt-Elft 1, Lichtental 1, Arzis 1, Dennewitz 1, Leipzig 1, Katzbach 1, and Wittenberg 1 family.
The frontier, on which Gnadenfeld was once established, consisted of 1,930 desj. and was divided into 64 farmsteads. The community acquired the land in 1880 from the brothers Fukelmann, from Odessa, for 36 rubles per desj. to be paid over 20 years. In 1881, there, where the Sarata valley is widest and takes on a rather unperturbed expansion (about 25 kilometers north of the train station of Sarata), 52 farmsteads were surveyed. On both sides is a wide, level and straight road. Every farmstead was one desj. (120 Faden long and 20 Faden wide) large and divided lengthwise into three parts. Buildings were towards the street, in the center of the threshing place and at the other end, orchards and vegetable gardens.
The whole frontier had the shape of a rectangle about 5.5 kilometers long and 3.5 kilometers wide. The west side was bordered by the brook, Sarata, which was only 200 – 300 meters from the village and meandered a little. At the settlement there were overall about 200 desj. land available. The rest of the area was represented by a large meadow, on which one meter high grasses and weeds were growing, and which was used by shepherds of a different race, as pasture for sheep and cattle. Two buildings were present: one small house of stone, one sod house and in addition some wells. At the beginning church services were held in the rooms of this little house. In 1882, a spacious chapel was built, which served also as a classroom. The first months of settlement were rather difficult. It was not only a matter of making the wilderness arable, but also to set up shelters for people and animals.
The first spring was spent in dug-outs, which were rough and ready covered with reed. After the cultivation of soil in the spring, extensive construction was begun. The local quarries supplied soft, but strong bricks. The goal was reached through continued work and perseverance. Next winter, every settler had his own home with an exemplary prepared reed roof and the necessary barns for animals. However, the general, but economic development was not yet completed. The descendants continued to work with the same eagerness. When in 1940 the resettlement took place, 140 nicely built yards and a quantity of land of 3,696 hay remained. Trusting in God, 800 people left, their nice Gnadenfeld, to return to the original homeland of their forefathers. (K. Ziegler).
In the ‘50s of the previous century, the Germans leased the colony of Safki, which is to be considered as the first off-shoot of the old German Bessarabian colonies and also the forerunner of the village Kurudschika.
The actual story of the village of Kurudschika begins with the end of the leasing terms of Andrei Karadsche = Iskrow for the southern half of the estate on April 23, 1879 old style (this refers to the Gregorian calendar). This part of the estate, 2,485 desj., is leased for ten years for two rubles/desj., as of the above date, by three colonists from Leipzig: Daniel Buchwitz, Johann Mann and Ludwig Jeschke. Here, they had to pledge to enlist for settlement at least 30 families as subtenants during the first three years in the Kurudschika valley. The subtenants were in return obliged to build houses in the German style and to plant trees in the yards.
Church in Ryschkanowka
In 1881, the following people settled here: from Leipzig 17, from Kulm 7, form Tarutino 2, from Beresina 2, from Katabach 2, from Paris 2, form Alt-Elft 2 and from Dennewitz 1 family.
The first year of settlement, 1881, was very difficult. It was a damp and cold spring and a rainy summer, so that the settlers, who at first were living in make-shift shacks of reed suffered much, and in addition, were continually prevented from building homes. Many became sick with fever. In the fall, typhus came up to which several of the colonists, fell victim. Workers were lacking to bring in the harvest. Then in 1882, a complete poor harvest followed, after which a great shortage of food (This can also mean feed for animals; the German word has two meanings.) occurred.
The years of 1918, 1924, 1925, and 1928 were years of poor harvests. The years of 1927 and 1929 were years of very good harvests, and in 1930 again a poor harvest.
For decades German industry fought for a little piece of soil, went under, rose again, and has survived catastrophes. A German village emerged from the steppe through the German people
and the village did not need to be ashamed of any of its neighbors.
Daniel Erdmann and Edmund Damer
Jargara was initially only a farmstead. In 1882, the settler, Lukas Seefried, of Neu-Elft, had purchased a farm of roughly 700 hectare from the great land owner Danko (Dankensfeld) and set up his farmstead with a school house and a chapel. After Lukas Seefried’s death, the estate was divided among his sons and daughters. The property increased in seize through continuous immigration of new settler families. Thus, the community Jagara, which numbered roughly 300 people at the resettlement in 1940, came gradually into being from small or rather great beginnings.
School house and chapel passed into the possession of the community because Seefried’s descendants were no longer able to keep it up.
In the book Immanuel Müller, a novel by Pastor Lotzky, Kischineff (Ganscheschth), which circulated in the communities in 1909-1912, the author describes dramatically the life and the activities in the German villages of the Kahul district at that period: Ganscheschth, Jagara, Albota – but especially, in sharp irony, the conditions in Jagara. (J. Romppel).
It was in the ‘80s, of the previous century, when space became too limited for the German settlers on the old colonies of Sarata, Lichtental, Gnadental, Alt-Elft and others. The available agricultural land was not sufficient anymore. Therefore, Friedrich Gebhardt, Christian Seeger, Jakob Unterseher, Gottlieb Gäβler, men from Lichtental, Sarata, Gnadental and Allt-Elft, started out and in 1885 bought a piece of land of 1,000 desj. from Mr. Otto Mehrmann, who was at that time was chairman of the regional office of Akkerman. This piece of land was located on a high elevation and had two small valleys running through the fields so that it was easy to be worked.
The first years produced good harvest. Lately they [the harvest] had diminished a bit and the fields had to be worked on more often and deeper.
Settlement began in 1886. However, as the valley is long and deep, and not well suited for building residences and farms, various plans existed. But one had to be satisfied. Although a suitable location for the village certainly existed, water was scarce here and to get it would have caused much difficulty. Finally, it was agreed to, come what may, to build into the valley. However, at first the settlement process went on slowly. The first, who settled here, was Friedrich Gebhardt from Lichtental. Christian Gentner and Friedrich Fink of Lichtental, as well as August Stach of Altennn-Elft, followed him. At the beginning of 1890, Gottlieb Knauer resigned from his office as school master in the community of Katzbach and transferred to his property of Korntal. Friedrich Mayer, Friedrich’s son from Lichtental and soon afterwards Karl Bareither’s son-in-law, Daniel Schneider from Alt-Elft and then Samuel Knauer, the son of Johannes, arrived in the same year. In 1891, the following people settled in Korntal: Karl Knauer, son of Johannes, Wilhelm Unterseher, the son of Jakob, and Gottlieb Gäβler. The latter had, so far, been schoolmaster in Neu-Elft. Ten farmsteads were occupied when, in 1892, Karl Bareither from Eigenheim arrived. Three farms were taken over by sons of the owner i.e. Seeger’s farm from son Christian, Martin Mayer’s farm from son Jakob and Christian Güler’s farm by his son Friedrich. (W. Unterseher).
The founders of the colony of Neu-Sarata were from the old colonies, preferably from Gnadental, Sarata, Neu-Elft and Leipzig. They found here a wide, uninhabited steppe lying fallow on which big herds of sheep grazed. Before the village got its name Neu-Sarata, it was called Sarona. The first families arrived in spring of 1890 and lived at first in dug-outs. The land, 2,433.5 desj., was divided into 48.5 farmsteads of 50 desj. each.
Church in Neu-Strymba
In regard to religion, the community was served in the first years by ministers of the parishes of Kischineff, Tarutino, and Alt-Elft. Due to insufficient church service in 1904, the surrounding communities, which were recently founded, were called upon to merge into an independent parish. At one of those meeting of representatives of the communities of the Kahul district the decision was made to set an adjunct parish with seat in Neu-Sarata. These meeting were called by Pastor J. Jundt and Pastor D. Steinwand. From 1906 to 1940, the parish had the following pastors until the time of resettlement: 1. Pastor Joh. Nedohl (1906-1908), 2. Pastor Friedr. Scriba (1908-1924), 3. Pastor Alf. Erdmann (1926-1932), and 4. Pastor Em. Chr. Lukas (1933-1940).
In 1940, the parish Nu-Sarata consisted of the following communities: 1. Neu-Sarata, 2. Jargara, 3. Mischeni, 4. Baijusch, 5. Manukbejewja, 6. Fürstenfeld I., 7. Fürstenfeld II, 8, Ebenfeld,
9. Fundu-Sarazika, 10. Rosental, 11. Bergdorf, 12. Rohrach, 13, Leowo, 14. Mariental and
The school and chapel were built in 1892 with the aid of the friendly society, which gave a loan of 9,000 rubles for their construction. The community had the following teachers: 1. Julius Karius, 2. Karl Kräenbring, 3. Bernhard Hiller, 4. Johann Geigle, 5. Immanuel Schaible, 6. Jakob Romppel, 7. Gotthilf Hermann, 8. Paul Straub, and 9. Johannes Helber. Until 1927 the school was a parochial school, then a public school and finally again a parochial school. The first child who was born in Neu-Sarat was Fridr. Dorsch. The last deceased, whom was accompanied to her grave and put to rest, was the old Mrs. Karoline Helber, nee Anklam. (J. Romppel).
Whoever drove from Bairamtscha to Akkerman has noticed, beside the mail route four kiloneters east of Bairamtscha, a small village with the name of Eigengut. This place was one of the smallest communities in Bessarabia. We owe this small, but beautiful place of Eigengut, to the energy and spirit of enterprise of one particular man. This is the Parisian settler Gottlieb Schimke. Besides agriculture he occupied himself with cattle on his place of birth. Gottlieb Schimke took care of all his business in all markets in the surrounding areas of Tarutino and Arzis, Bairamtscha, and Tartarbunar, Wolontirowka and others.
After farming with cattle brought him good earnings, he followed many of our elders with the desire for land. Paris was too small. In 1895, he bought a farmstead of 500 desj. To the east it bordered on a farmstead of the community of the community of Halle (Alisowka), to the west on Bairamtscha, to the south and north on the farmstead of Samuel and Wilhelm Schimke, the so-called parson country. It did not take long until an impressive house of a colonist was on the farm. In the next year, five more houses for sons and daughters followed. Thus in a very short period of time, six houses were there. Six is also the number of his children. Three sons: Samuel, Wilhelm, and Eduard, and three daughters: Karoline, Christine and Ottilie. Opposite of this row of houses were sod houses. One of them [the shacks] used to be a school and chapel. Half of the farmers were living in the others [shacks]. These shacks have long been torn down because at the beginning of 1907 the founder built on this place a chapel with a parsonage. At the time of founding water had to be thought of. A well had to be dug and after one year the second well had to be built. Both wells are in the middle of the street and provide good drinking water. The water was drawn with horses, whereby, one horse and one person were necessary. Immediately after the year of founding, 1895, the founder laid out an orchard south of the chapel. Gottlieb Schimke was a lover of trees. As everywhere in our German colonies, the farms had to take into account the increase in population. In Eigengut, they were surveyed to the left and to the right of the chapel. After 37 years the small village, with the two rows of houses opposite each other, looked like a village with the bell tower and two bells in front of the chapel and the two wells in the middle of the street. (Th. Wagner).
Alexanderfeld was founded in 1908 from the mother colonies of Dennewitz, I. Fere Chamnoise, Paris by settlers and by others, who had purchased in 1907 an uninhabited steppe of 2,683 desj. from tilted Lady Elisabetha Nikolaewna Gartin.
Alexanderfeld was in the district of Kahul, 20 kilometers southeast of Kahul and 20 kilometers northwest of Bolgrad. It bordered to the north on the farms Paruschowka and Pelinei, to the west on the farm Wulkaneschti, Atanasulis, Musait and Sokolow.
The village is located on the northeastern corner of the farm. It runs a little from northeast to southwest. The road is one werst long and 15 Faden wide. A whole yard is 20 Faden wide and 120 Faden long, so that it takes up one desj. with half of the road. The 2,683 desj. are divided into 49.5 farms. The land is rather hilly. The black soil forms a thick layer and is very fertile. Loam follows the black stratum and after that sand, which is in some places eight Faden or more deep, while it can be found elsewhere on the surface. Stone are rare; they can only be found in the klingen (Literally a blade, however, in this context it is used as a geological or geographical term typical for this area) towards Gawanosy.
Some of the residents of Alexanderfeld bought land from farmers near Alexanderfeld and indeed from the Esimows 400 hectare, from the farm of Sokolow 100 hectare, from the farm of Atanasulis 100 hectare and from the farm of Netusche 30 hectare; totaling 630 hectare.
However, the village was first to be named Gartenfeld after the name of the previous owner. Yet they could not agree on it. Then it was to be named after the Russian successor Alexei, in Russian Alexeewka, and in German Alexanderfeld. It got the name Alexanderfeld because there was already an Alexeewka in the district of Kahul. The Romanian offices named it later, Alexandrucel Bun, in memory of the Romanian prince of the same name. (Chr. Wagner).
Annowka got its name in honor of Duchess Anna Gagrina-Sturdza, who had once owned 20,000 desj. land in this area. The duchess spent most of the time in France to where she emigrated after the separation from her husband, an ophthalmologist in Manzar, district of Bendery.
Church under construction (Eigenfeld)
In 1909, the duchess offered her land for sale through her chief assistant, Kasir Ant. Krscherkowsky. He lived always in Odessa because he himself did not only own a glass factory, but also had to administrate other tracts of land located in the vicinity of Odessa. He was hardly ever seen on the Bessarabian farm; here, he had his lower assistants, whom he left a free hand and who were only responsible to collect and deliver the rent money. The administrator of the land, bought later by the community, was the settler Johann Fieβ of Sarata, who filled this post from 1901-1909. He was informed of the sale of the land by the general administration, announced it personally in the German villages of the colonists, glad to be released from office, which was frequently so life threatening. Soon farmers, intending to purchase land from various colonies, appeared. Annowka can rightfully be called their daughter colony because most of them were from the colony of Gnadental. The farmers, intending to purchase land, elected from amongst themselves, a committee consisting of Johann Fieβ, Jakob Bantel I, August Adolf I, and Gotthilf Schimke. They negotiated with the general administrator and affected a sale of 200 desj. on January 10, 1909. The negotiations lasted almost two years, while in the meantime the buyers had already taken possession of the land and worked it.
Our village is in a valley which runs from north to south. The two rows of houses are on the foot of the two hills and are separated from each other by an 80-Faden- long (160 Meter) road. A water ditch runs through the middle of the road. On the banks orchards have been set up in the course of years.
Our community has, in addition, the name of Manscha-Erling, because the original owners of the Annowka region were the actual relatives of the duchess Sturdza, especially these 2,000 desj. of land that were brought by the founders of the community Annowka. They were divided later into 40 farms and thirteen Lősung (type of measurement which was either typical for that area or has been replaced by a more modern one). First our village had the name of Annental, which was, however, changed by Russian officials. The cause of these measures on behalf of the Russian officials was the following: when disputes among the members of the community had broken out because of the thirteenth Losung at the division of the country, they turned to the Russian officials, who appeared very astonished regarding the new founding of a German community with a purely German name. Therefore, they commanded that this village was from now on called Annowka. Our community was given a new name by the Romanian authority, Aninoasa, in addition to the names Annental, Manscha-Erling, Annowka. (N. Brenner).
The 8,000 large farmstead of Adolf Schlinger and Julia Spioner, was west of the river Jalpug. After parts of it had been sold after many years, a remainder of the 1,000 desj.was left in 1912. Of those, twenty-one German farmers bought 856 desj. from Dennewitz, Sofiewka and other villages.
Late in 1912, Immanuel Schőttle moved from Dennewitz to Sofiewka to work his land from there. On February 2, 1913, five other families arrived and in l914 one more to Neu-Dennewitz. After everything was brought here and stored the sawing started. When this work was done, the construction of some homes was begun. Unburned bricks (Patzen) were made in the valley beside the river. Stones were taken from their own quarry and in part also from Kasaktia. The wood was bought in common in Bendery (Tighina) and transported by train to the train station to Taraklia from where it was picked up by wagon. All houses were covered with metal sheets which were obtained in part from Bolgrad, in part from Odessa (Russia). Johann Schaible (Soft-jewka) dealt mostly in wood work.
From among the buyers and founders the following sold again: 1. Daniel Schaible (founder) 1918, moved to Ebenfeld; 2. Daniel Weiβ (founder), 1918, (moved to Alexandrowka); 3. Johannes Broneske, 1918; 4. Immanuel Schaible, 1918; 5. August Schwabe, 1918; 6. Friedrich Gebhardt, 1918; 7. Adam Weiβ, 1918; 8. Christian Hősel, 1919; 9. Heinrich Müller, 1921 and 10. Adam Kalmbach, 1926.
The village is located near the eastern border of the tract of land. It runs north to south. The mainstreet is 80 Faden long and 15 wide. The intersecting street is ten Faden wide. A whole farm is 26 Faden wide and 70 Faden long, so that it takes up almost ¾ desj.. Also the six desj., which were bought in common and of which each buyer received an equally large share, regardless, whether he bought much or little land, have been surveyed into 24 small farmsteads each 8.5 Faden wide and 70 Faden long (an area of ¼ desj.). They are located at the end of the villages, six farmsteads each on every side. The 850 desj. are divided into 17 farmsteads so that one farm has 50 desj. in Neu-Dennewitz. The whole area is divided into eleven parcels on which every land owner has his share according to the amount of land. Some from Neu-Dennewitz owned, besides the farmstead in Neu-Dennewitz, together 155 ¾ desj. (W.B. Chr. Wagner).