German Russians in British Columbia,
By H. Goerz, Vancouver
There were earlier Russian Germans in British Columbia, but they
were usually scattered. Their actual immigration in larger groups
first began in the 20's of this century. Most of these Germans came
from the prairie provinces of Canada but after WWII, directly from
Europe. The reasons for these wanderings are varied. For the most
part it was the mild climate that attracted people to British Columbia
away from the cold prairie, but there were also economic reasons.
The Great Depressions that began everywhere in the early 30's struck
the inhabitants of the American and Canadian West especially hard
because a severe drought occurred at the same time, lasted several
years and resulted in crop failures. Almost the entire south of
the of the province of Saskatchewan changed into a gigantic dust
bowl (staubbecken), where strong, hot winds swept the dry earth
into sand dunes. What was then more natural than for the Germans
in the area to move to British Columbia, where droughts were unknown
and where for little money one could acquire a piece of land? When
the conditions became more normal, a different reason convinced
the Germans to move to British Columbia, namely, the change in farming
methods through the mechanization of agricultural equipment. This
drove many small farmers off the land and induced them to seek their
fortune elsewhere. Many, including Germans, went to British Columbia.
Then after WWII when vast numbers of expelled Eastern immigrants
began to arrive in Canada, it was very natural that many were led
back to British Columbia where their relatives and friends were
already living. And that is the way it came about that British Columbia,
for example, became the home of many Russian Germans who, indeed,
live in various parts of this great province.
In this article we wish to briefly describe their settling in sequence.
First in the south, then the north and east on Vancouver Island,
and finally their life in the city of Vancouver.
Russian Germans in the Fraeser Valley
The largest gathering of Russian Germans, especially Mennonites,
are found in the southwestern part of the province in the approximately
100 km long valley of the great Fraeser River that flows in a westerly
direction toward the quiet ocean. The previous swampland in the
eastern part of the valley has been changed into a beautiful meadow
through irrigation. Farther west, hilly land is predominately covered
with wavy, low forests. The climate is mild and moist (average temperature
in January is 35 degrees Fahrenheit). Here in the spring of 1928
a group of Russian German Mennonites of the prairie bought a large
tract of land near the small station of Yarrow from a certain Eckert.
Sometime later an adjoining piece of land at the village of Sardis
was bought by the Mennonites. There the two most prominent German
settlements originated in Fraesertal and in British Columbia, especially
Yarrow and Greendale. The land was divided into large and small
farms. Since it was bought in large complexes, it was possible for
the farms to be laid out side by side on both sides of the street,
which gave the settlements, especially Yarrow, the character of
a village as one knew it in the old homeland.
Very soon the land in both these settlements was all claimed. But
attraction to the prairie grew and became stronger, so that in the
middle thirties a definite British Columbia fever developed. Not
only poor people but well-to-do farmers thronged westward and founded
the settlements of Abbotsford, Clearbrook, Aldergrove, Matsque and
Mission. There it was no longer possible to acquire large land complexes.
Land had to be purchased in smaller units and for that reason settlements
could no longer resemble village plans.
The settlement years brought many hardships. One had to adjust
to the new climate, new types of soil conditions and a completely
new domestic economy. Until now only grain had been raised. The
new system of farming on a small scale included raising fruit and
berries and chickens and, on the larger farms, producing dairy products.
The small farms then and yet today consist of three to ten acres;
the dairy farms occupy twenty to forty acres. In the beginning there
were many disappointing results. It soon became obvious that some
farms were too small to support a family, so outside income had
to be sought. This was found in the hop fields nearby. Or work was
found in the large city of Vancouver. There daughters of the settlers
were hired by the hundreds in the homes of the rich and each month
brought home a nice amount of money. These girls, through honesty
and diligence, distinguished themselves and made good names for
the settler families. Mentioned here must be the fact that relationships
between the local population and the settlers was not very friendly
at first. In the eastern part of the province there had been bad
experience with the Russian Dukhobors and now again people identified
as Russians were settling among them in great numbers. But it was
soon learned that the newcomers were quiet, industrious people,
not ill-bred and unfriendly as they had imagined. They sent their
smaller children to the government schools without hesitation. For
the older children they soon built private schools for higher education
in Yarrow, Clearbrook and Greendale. The school at Greendale was
closed in time, but both the others, especially Clearbrook, have
been further developed. Clearbrook now has 400 students, excluding
German teacher trainees. In the departmental government middle schools
the German language is taught. Religion is taught in German.
Photo: Mennonite church in Vancouver, Canada.
Today approximately 10,000 Mennonites live in Fraesertal, where
a blossoming religious life has developed. In the valley, besides
those in Vancouver, twenty-one communities have been developing
in both directions (Mennonite brotherhood parishes and so-called
conference parishes), each with its church and its preacher. The
German language, sad to say, is on the decline. About twenty-five
percent of the population understands German, but only five percent
speak it. The worship services are conducted in both languages in
most churches, but in the Sunday Schools considerably more classes
are taught in English. Since 1950 there is a strong tendency to
move into the towns. Only sixty percent of the German Mennonite
residents of Fraesertal are farmers. Some establish industrial and
sales businesses in the smaller towns. Yarrow with a population
of about 2500 souls supports six industrial businesses, nine shops,
a printing office and a bank. Many of the Germans move to Vancouver
and find work there. Many non-Mennonite Russian Germans live in
Fraesertal. They came mostly from Wolhynien and the previous Russian
Poland. Their number is unknown to me but could be several thousand.
Since they live widely scattered, they have not formed parishes.
They attend the English Baptist or other churches; some, the Mennonite.
Russian Germans North of British Columbia
We turn to the north of the province now where the climate is the
opposite of the southwestern part--cold and similar to that of the
prairie. But still, the cheap land prices, the profitable earning
possibilities in the highly developed lumber industry and the mining
works have enticed many Russian Germans, mainly Mennonites. They
are predominantly the so-called "Old Colonists," the most
conservative element of the multi-branch Mennonite family. Since
1940 many of them have returned from Mexico to which they emigrated
fifteen years earlier from Manitoba and where, for several reasons,
they were dissatisfied. The people live on scattered farms where
the land is not suitable for grain farming. Therefore they engage
in milk and beef production. Their main income is from work in the
lumber industry. These people, although scattered, keep in close
contact, have formed parishes and built their own churches. The
language in the worship services is in high German mixed with low
German words. Their lay preachers posses no higher learning. They
are honest and industrious people. Low German is spoken in the family,
but the young people are beginning to speak English since they are
attending the public schools. They are, without exception, descendants
of the Mennonites who in 1874 emigrated from Russia to Canada. The
most prominent centers are Vanderhoof, Burns Lake and Prince George.
Other Germans live throughout this area, especially in the industrial
centers, Kitimat, Terrace and Ocean Falls. Among them are also some
Russian Germans but they are not closely joined in parishes.
Totally independent is the settlement of Fort St. John, northern
German settlement in British Columbia. This distant region of Peace
Rivertal is an open rolling steppe of fertile soil. Although it
lies far north and the climate is cold, it is well suited to raising
grain. Wheat totally ripens in the hot summer days. Since 1950 Germans
also migrated there. Mennonites and others are engaged in profitable
agriculture on the larger farms. The Mennonites have formed parishes.
To the north about 3,000 Mennonites have formed communities of about
600 around Vanderdorf; 700 around Burns Lake; 550 at Prince George
and 750 at St. Johns. Some in other regions of the north. I was
unable to learn anything definite about the Russian Germans in that
area, but their number could be notable.
Russian Germans in the Central and Eastern Part of British
Columbia on Vancouver Island
Russian Germans live here also in large numbers. In Kelonna in
the Okanagan Valley there are two small Mennonite and one Evangelical
Lutheran parish. Farther south is a Mennonite community at Oliver.
Farther east is an Evangelical Lutheran community at Nelson. In
the vicinity of Reneta there are fifteen Mennonite families at present.
Russian Germans live at Kimberly and Trail, where they have vegetable
gardens or work in the saw-mills and mines. The climate there is
somewhat colder than in Fraesertal and considerably dryer. This
region is famous for its MacIntosh apples and other fruits. Some
of the large fruit gardens are in the hands of Germans.
Russian Germans live also in the capital city of the province of
Victoria and are scattered over the southern part of Vancouver Island.
Located about 110 km from the harbor city, Nanaimo is a small united
settlement of Mennonites at Black Creek. The farm places stretch
in long rows along the streets, giving the settlement the appearance
of a village. The Mennonites, about 300 in number, maintain two
churches there. The residents farm on a small scale and support
a dairy. What makes this settlement interesting is the fact that
it is the farthest west German settlement in the world. There beyond
the unending distances of quiet ocean begins the Far East with Japan,
China and Soviet Russia.
Russian Germans in Vancouver
Lastly, the city of Vancouver. Greater Vancouver has among its
three-quarter million residents about 50,000 Germans. A large number
of them are Empire Germans who immigrated after WWII. But a very
notable number are Russian Germans (then from Wolhynien, the Black
Sea area and elsewhere).
The number of Mennonites in Vancouver is estimated to be about
5,000. Of these, about seven percent are West Prussian and southern
German Mennonites who emigrated after WWII. On the farms in this
area the percentage is perhaps smaller. The number of other Russian
Germans--Evangelical, Catholic and especially those of Baptist faith--is
in total considerably larger here in the city than that of the Mennonites
who have six churches in Greater Vancouver. A large number of Germans
live in South Vancouver in the Fraeser district, where a number
of their churches are located. The occupations of these people,
as one might expect in a large city, vary greatly. Most of them
work in industry and business. Some are in professions of various
kinds-- doctors, teachers and lawyers.
Here in the large cities with their many secondary schools, attended
also by Germans, the assimilation process is stronger than in the
country. The young people speak English exclusively, although nearly
all understand German. Yet here in spite of all one often finds
a delightful festival in the German language and German ways. So
German prevails in the large Mennonite communities where the writer
of this dissertation served as minister in charge of the worship
services and the entire Sunday School. Continued also in this community
is a Sunday Evening School in German where 140 children are instructed
by seven men and women teachers. But this is an exception. Not by
far is it so favorable in all communities, including Mennonites.
In many churches both languages are used; in some, only English.
Our appreciation is extended to Alma M. Herman for translation
of this article.