Continuation and Development of the German-Russian
Identity -- a Personal Victory for Individuals and the Community
Reflections on Two New Publications from the Publisher for German-Russian
Literature and Culture -- Robert Burau
Die Fortführung und Entwicklung der russlanddeutschen Identität
- eine persönliche Eroberung für den Einzelnen und die
Zu zwei Neuerscheinungen des Verlages für russlanddeutsche
Literatur und Kultur -- Robert Burau
Volk auf dem Weg, Landsmannschaft der Deutschen aus Russland,
November, 2001, page 26-27
Translation from German to English by Alex Herzog, Boulder,
Johann Warkentin, Übersetzers Frust und Freud [The
Translator's Frustrations and Joys], 148 pages, 34.90 DM, ISBN
Johann Warkentin, doyen of Germans from Russia literature who was
born in 1920 in the German village of Spat on the Crimean Peninsula,
in his collection of essays entitled The Translator's Frustrations
and Joys offers the reader some insights into his activities
as mediator, or negotiator, between Russian and German, German-Russian
and Russian, and German-Russian and German literature and cultures.
This constitutes the real value and appeal of this volume, which
is not only a general technical text for translators and problems
of paraphrasing text. It is also a rather uncommon publication dealing
with the possibilities for mediating a German-language minority
culture between their mother tongue and the language of their country
Warkentin begins with a generally comprehensible introduction of
the linguistic history of laws governing the German and Russian
languages (for example, aspects of verbs in Russian and various
difficulties of rendering them in German). He complements linguistic
explanations with specific historical facts and thereby attempts
to create interest in a "healthy, autonomous" development
of language, as well as to warn against excessive adoption of Anglicisms
(the so-called "Denglish" component of [modern] German).
At this juncture, he correctly points to the more delicate sensitivity
for language that existed in the former GDR, where Anglicisms were
actively checked by the State and the Party, while the populace
itself fairly refrained from automatic inclusions from the Russian
This sort of concern for the purity of the language was, at least
until 1956, nearly impossible for the German-Russians who had collectively
been banished to Siberia and Central Asia, because they had been
robbed of all their schools and of all other cultural institutions.
Only after 1956, when they were no longer subject to Russian commanders,
did a gradual awakening of German-language cultural life even become
possible. A real beginning was made possible in 1956 in Barnaul,
West Siberia, via the newspaper Arbeit [Labor], which was
replaced in 1957 by Das Neue Leben [New Life].
Warkentin has given the German-Russians living dispersed across
immensely vast Russia the designation of "Islanders" and
points to the great contributions of then German-language writers
arriving on the scene. Such people as Lia Frank from the Baltic
region (Riga), Sepp Österreicher (actually Boris Brainin) from
Vienna, and Rudolf Jacquemien from Cologne, who made the "Islanders"
familiar with a more modern German language.
That was all the more commendable because it occurred immediately
after the time when the German language had been condemned as being
reactionary. Criminalizing the German language seemed particularly
absurd given that it was the mother tongue of the founder of 'scientific
socialism' and for this reason alone should have been especially
treasured in the Soviet Union. But, like any other totalitarian
system, Stalinism also depended upon an ideological image of an
enemy, often by means of fantastical misrepresentations, to knit
Their translations from the Russian language made it possible for
the surviving German-Russian authors at first at least "to
report back" and at the same time, as loyal children of their
country, carefully to stake a legitimate claim to cultural equality.
These cultural historical explanations make Warkentin's volume
of essays extremely interesting even for the nonexpert.
Johann Bär, "Mit anderen Worten" ["In
Other Words"], poems, 110 pages, 19.90 DM, ISBN 3-935000-04-9:
Johann Bär's life is, as is usually the case with lyricists,
the path toward personal identity, the path toward his own voice.
The relative power of poems determines how independent and, in the
best case, how unmistakable this voice becomes.
For this reason the title In Other Words is a good choice,
because those other words are to be those original, personal words
of the author. Language as the key to the world and to life, but
also the key to one's own inner self -- an age-old, eternally new,
romantic, fundamental emotion, that naturally is familiar to Johann
Bär as well.
Russian was the lingua franca in the gigantic country of
Siberia where Bär was born a child of deported German-Russians
in 1962, and in which he spent seven years. In 1969 he moved to
Kirghizia, in 1982 to Uzbekistan, and finally, following the end
of school, after attempts at journalistic and poetic writing and
living with the irritations of censure, as well as subsequent to
some work as a freelance photographer, he immigrated to the German
Federal Republic in 1989. Here his first volume of poems in the
German language has been published.
The romantic view of language mentioned earlier looks at the language
of poetry as the language of the soul and its shaping in the respective
national language as a multiplicity that is fed from the same poetic
source and emotional experience. In Bär's poem Blume
[Flower] it simply states that emotional experience limits the experience
of the mind: "... and my soul / bathes in warmth / and is
itself / glowing / becoming the source of warmth / so that I ask
myself / do I pray to the Sun / or does the Sun pray to me."
Even before this, the early Soviet-era lyric poet and innovator
Mayakovski was calling on the sun and allowed it in a poem to come
to itself. With Bär, given his dual cultural background, the
Russian and the German, the relationship becomes the individual
-- the cosmos reversible, exchangeable -- because he succeeds in
becoming entirely familiar with the cosmos.
It is the great talent of Johann Bär to create a concrete
vividness with the help of imagery, the intellectual explanation
of which cannot be translated into everyday language without further
details -- other words, that is. From this one recognizes that Johann
Bär must be a born poet, for the German language was learned
in his case, as for most German-Russians under difficult conditions
in the family, only in its rudiments in school. Only after later
emigration, is it learned correctly and becomes a real part of him
in its very own poetic way. "I was taught the foreign tongue
/ in silver paces," he says in his poem "Ich wurde
stumm" ["I became mute"].
This poetic way of being able to make a new language culture one's
very own bespeaks something dreamlike, yes, a dreamlike assurance
that can lead to a new kind of existence, as Bär expresses
hopefully in his poem Sanft [Softly]: "Brightly /
as a summer afternoon / fills the pathway / - / I dream my existence
/ tomorrow and the day after / at the time / when the / creeping
/ painful / senseless / today / has passed."
Arrival into and a feeling of being really at home in a new language,
one that may be only partly familiar from the dialect of the old
homeland, demands time and, most importantly, effort: "Like
heavy stones dropping, the difficult hours pass / and outside the
snow falls all week long." A daring comparison between
stones and falling snow, and at the same an antithesis, a contrast
of heavy and light. All the while Johann Bär, without sentimentality
or self-pity, succeeds in letting the reader see the difficulty
and complexity of "growing into" new conditions. At the
end of the poem Tausend Kerzen meiner Hoffnung ... [A
Thousand Candles of My Hope ...] he practically states this
conclusion: "... No pain is too great for me. / Scars have
grown from the deep wounds / of my fragility." He also
has grown with his work. With his scars he has overcome his fragility
and the wounds of his soul.
The great German lyricist Bertolt Brecht writes in a poem: "When
the wound hurts no longer, the scar continues to hurt."
And even here, Johann Bär finds a way out of his pain, for
he counters, "No pain is too great for me" on his
way toward finding his identity. In the poem Merkmal [The
Mark] he finds, in astonishment: "And when / on the
cross I cry over myself / the whole world remains silent / forgets
all envy / and all pains melt into hard stones / in the fire of
my suffering." The birth pangs of the new identity provide
power to the suffering, even to soften stones and to transform the
gravest difficulties. There is also an admission here to a right
for pain during the process of transformation, for without suffering
there is no happiness, only eternal sameness, only superficiality.
Can I withstand the new challenges, Johann Bär asks himself
in the poem Er kannte seinen Traum auswendig [He Knew
His Dream by Heart], when he demands: "Leave me to myself.
/ I desire to be still, / to be able to hear the voice -- / the
one inside me. / I wish to know: was I / or am I going to be?"
A new start is successful when the individual succeeds in facing
the flood of all that is new, as Johann Bär shows in the poem
Tausende Worte [Thousands of Words]: "Thousands
of words / are floating in the air / as in a dance / I seek the
fitting ones / and when I think / they are the right ones / they
form / a question."
Language, any language, especially one's mother tongue, constitutes
a lifelong responsibility. Whether one accepts this lifelong responsibility
or not is what matters, as shown by this truly remarkable volume
of poems by a still rather young German-Russian poet about his successful
struggle for his own integration. From this point of view, the phrases
"was I" ("in the East," one can now add)
and "or am I going to be" ("in the West, following
successful integration") receive new meaning in the synthesis
of this volume of poems of a search for identity. A possibility
of finding one's identity offers itself: I am going to be in the
West through linguistic integration, but also with my Eastern background
-- with my dual cultural background -- with my own, entirely personal
preconditions that I have to work through.
With this, his first German-language volume of poems, Johann Bär
has made a very impressive beginning.
Our appreciation is extended to Alex Herzog for translation
of this article.