Die Deutschen aus Bessarabien: Eine Minderheit
aus Sudosteuropa, 1814 bis heute
Germans from Bessarabia: a Minority in Southeastern Europ,
1814 to today
Book review by Christian Sachse, Berlin, Germany
Ute. Die Deutschen aus Bessarabien: Eine Minderheit aus Südosteuropa, 1818 bis heute. Böhlau Verlag GmbH & Cie, Cologne, Germany, 2004.
Translation of original German to American English by Alex Herzog,
In the German-language encyclopedia Brockhaus, Bessarabia is described
as a "historical area." In the very same encyclopedia this
designation is also given to fourteen world-wide areas, Palestine,
Franconia, Livland, Gondvana and Thrace being among them. Frequently
associated with a "grand" history, none of these at times
not so small areas can be seen as congruent with any current state.
But there are some similarities. In those areas, ancient regional
or even cultural streams tend to collide. A constant cycle - sometimes
year by year - of mergers and conflicts, of privilege and discrimination
must have engendered an identity consciousness among the residents
that is independent of formal membership of a (mostly foreign) nation.
Living at the periphery of the extant political sphere of influence,
they were quickly forgotten in times of calm, but were usually among
the first to be affected during times of conflict or war.
In her study of the Germans from Bessarabia, Ute Schmidt does not
-as it may appear at first - simply look at a localize history of
a small German group of immigrants. The area near the Black Sea,
though economically thriving, but politically peripheral, in the
20th century turned into a place in which contrasting European interests
came to be felt like seismic waves even in everyday life. Invited
to the country by Catherine II and specially protected well into
the 19th Century, the German colonists after WW I became the unloved
Germans of the Romanian nation. The draconian Romanianization policies
toward the Bessarabian ethnic group, which were carefully observed
by the governments in Berlin, London and Paris, did have a real
background: Bessarabia had become a potential war front region for
its Bolshevist neighbors. After Romania had turned back any and
all movements toward independence via simple annexation, the region
was to be integrated as quickly as possible into the central state.
Looking on from the other side, most Bessarabian Germans settled
for the Romanianization efforts as the lesser evil compared with
The status of the Germans kept varying in rhythm with the manner
in which Romania, while struggling against internal Fascist movements,
might turn toward either toward Germany or toward the Western powers.
The careening nature of this course had its basis in the ever more
destabilizing conditions of foreign relations within Europe. The
Hitler-Stalin pact of 1939 once again changed drastically the status
situation for the Germans in Bessarabia. Of course, people in Bessarabia
could not be aware of the secret agreements of that pact, yet they
were directly confronted with its effects: border disputes, mobilization
activities, and moving troops around. With diplomatic backing from
the German Reich, the Soviets in 1940 demanded ULTIMATIV from the
Romanians the ceding of Bessarabia (and Northern Bukovina). Only
a few days later the red Army marched into the requisitioned region.
At that moment it became apparent that the two befriended deathly
enemies, Fascist Germany and the Socialist Soviet Union, were capable
of constructive cooperation in the small when common political interests
While the Soviet secret policy, having arrived along with the Red
Army, was beginning to search the population for supposed or real
foes, killing some, deporting others, establishing collectives and
dispossessing businesses, the local Germans - as appeared to have
been the plan - would largely (and with only a few exceptions) remain
spared of these repressions. Responsibility for these actions rested,
among others, with Ivan Alexandrovich Serov, who would later also
be given responsibility for the "integration" of Eastern
Polish areas into the Soviet Union and, in 1945, would be given
command over the secret services in the Soviet occupation zone of
Germany. A few weeks following the occupation [of Bessarabia], a
Soviet-German commission began to tax the properties of the German
Bessarabians, whose deportation had been stipulated by Hitler. Faced
with a choice between [staying and] being dispossessed and repressed
or [leaving and] - with at least some hope for compensation - going
into an uncertain future, by far the majority of them decided to
give up their then homeland. A factor [in this decision] was certainly
also the illusion of escaping (in Germany) their minority status
or perhaps even to take advantage of new occupational opportunities.
No later than by the time they found themselves in resettlement
camps, in which some spent several years, did reality catch up with
the Bessarabia-Germans. There they made the acquaintance of National
Socialist Germany, which intended to transform them into "real"
Germans and took a certain interest in their "racial-politically"
valuable heritage. Subsequently, they were by far for the most part
used as a mass of pawns to be shifted around and sent to the Polish
"Warthegau," thus serving the to establish a "new
German ethnic body" there. And there they watched passively
- for the most part without objection - as Polish owners were chased
off their farm properties, only a short while later to be driven
off themselves from the properties that were not even their own.
They finally settled in Germany, which only gradually became their
new homeland. A bitter irony of this history of displacement is
pointed out by the author in a separate chapter: Bessarabia-Germans
who had [finally] settled down in Mecklenburg and who, on the basis
of agrarian reform, were by now owners of their third set of properties
within just twenty years, in the 1950s were directly impacted by
the agricultural collectivization that they had fled from in 1940.
The topic of Bessarabia-Germans in the DDR [Deutsche Demokratische
Republik - German Democratic Republic, namely, East Germany - Tr.]
is of such great importance simply because it will take a long time
to break open the 45 years without their own history, which had
clearly been dictated from above.
In reconstructing these historical happenings, one must rule out
of hand questions that lead to the meta story with a title "The
Perpetrators" or "The Victims." The Bessarabia-Germans
had at least on the form of it "returned" voluntarily
to the Reich. Many had even promoted their own settlement in [German-]occupied
Poland (Wartheland). However, they were indeed objects of political
forces the intentions of which they not even begin to get to the
bottom of. Thirdly, the spectrum of behavioral attitudes that the
Bessarabia-Germans developed in the hardly predictable situation
in Poland is extremely wide. Ute Schmidt avoids posing such generalizing
questions by combining two methodologies with another that are often
considered incompatible: a political-structural approach oriented
toward institutions and a narrative, biographically oriented approach.
This combination proves to be a very productive one.
In the first part of her study the history of the Bessarabia-Germans
is presented in its European context. Their applicable juridical
status, their self-administrative organs, the organization of the
communes, their business and farming methods, cultural institutions
(school system, church) , their relationships with other minorities
and with the dominant state (nation) are all considered in this
study. This approach is sued for all historical stages (Russian,
Romanian, Polish, and German). Additionally, the author evaluates,
besides the relevant secondary literature, available documents from
state, regional, city and church archives of predominately German
origin. Serving as further sources were materials of the Landsmannschaft
der Bessarabiendeutschen plus archives of the Assistance Committee
of the Ev.-Luth. Church of Bessarabia as well as private archives.
The second part looks at the attitudes developed by contemporary
eye witnesses within the so easily describable situation and conditions.
Since each of the phases carries its own SOZIALISATORISCHE impacts
or also traumatic experiences, Ute Schmidt sets apart three generations
whose conscious experiences had their onset during different points
in time, but which were also socialized secondarily by a previous
phase. In this manner, for each statement of the interviewed contemporary
eye witnesses she provides a coordinating system into which memories
and assessments from hindsight can be entered.
The items from the 90 contemporary eye witnesses, it appears, have
been produced, by iterative process, from the materials she studied.
This material confirms a plethora of individual themes of everyday
life, occupational life, family life and cultural backgrounds. A
second, extensive set of questions deals with biographical occurrences
(e.g., resettlement, transition camps, Polish settlement, expulsion,
and renewed settlement), and a third set addresses values, attitudes
([e.g.,] the Protestant work ethic), and retrospective assessments.
At various points, the book actually raises more questions than
it answers. The fact that Ute Schmidt interviewed only Bessarabia-Germans
and used predominately German sources means that she was able to
assess only the inside views. Of course, given this study that already
takes up 570 pages, anything else would have been a huge effort.
Still, questions of a view from the outside do present themselves.
Consider that the majority of those interviewed claimed in retrospect
to have treated humanely the Polish families who had been driven
off their farm properties, and to have accepted the strangersâ€™
properties only reluctantly and with a guilty conscience. This is
confirmed by examples of gratitude and at least some friendly contacts
that have endured to this day. Of course, things may actually have
been that way. However, one hears here the usual legitimizing strategies
that might need to be verified. Answers to these questions may,
hopefully soon, be provided by Polish or Moldovan colleagues.
Our appreciation is extended to Alex Herzog for translation
of this book review.