Germans from Russia Symposium
North Dakota State University
Fargo, North Dakota
German Dialects of the Central Dakotas
Dr. Shirley Fischer Arends
Thank you Michael Miller for your
introduction and for your invitation to speak here today. My lecture
begins with the study of dialects in general and then continues
with the insights and information gained from my research on the
German dialect spoken in the Central Dakota area today.
I would like to follow up on the seminar,
"Recording Our Ancestors in Sight and Sound," taught by
Dona Reeves-Marquardt and Lewis R. Marquardt this morning. Their
work and the field methods, which they propose, are very important
to us. We have a last unique opportunity to collect on audio and
videotape the German dialects spoken by the Germans from Russia
who immigrated to the United States.
During the seminar this morning, many
of you asked the question, "How do I know which dialect I speak?"
This is an important question for many of you. I would like to try
to help you find some answers to this question. I cannot teach the
study of dialects, known as dialectology, in one brief hour. What
I can do is give an overview of how the investigation of a dialect
can be accomplished.
Referring to the papers given to
each participant at the symposium and included herewith as Attachment
1, you will find a series of sentences known simply as the 40 Wenker
sentences. In 1876 in Germany, George Wenker developed this series
of sentences, which he used to collect the sounds and forms of the
various dialects of the German language until his death in 1911.
His goal was the publication of a large linguistic atlas, which
would describe and allow one to establish the site of all the dialect
spoken in Germany. These 40 sentences became the standard tool,
which German dialectologists have employed for several generations
in their studies of the various dialects spoken in Germany and abroad.
Because these Wenker sentences have been used for more than 100
years they have become an important standard, which we too can use.
In looking at Attachment 1, you will
see that the 40 Wenker sentences are given (a) in Standard High
German, (b) in what I have termed the Central Dakota German dialect,
that is the dialect spoken in the area from mid North Dakota to
mid South Dakota, (c) in phonemic writing which holds the basic
sound system of the Central Dakota German dialect, and (d) in English. (Attachment not available)
In your interviews with dialect speakers,
you can use the Wenker sentences in either Standard High German,
line (a), or if you are not a German speaker, in English, line (d),
whichever suits your own language ability. You say the sentence
then the dialect speaker says it in his or her dialect. Be sure
to tell the dialect speaker that there is no right way to say the
sentence. They should think about it and express it as they would
normally say it. You will find interesting differences in pronunciation,
in words used, and in the way the sentence is structured.
In collecting dialect tapes for publication
I had to construct a way of putting the German dialect spoken in
the center of the two Dakotas into writing since it is not a written
language for any of us. What I have done is give the dialect, which
I termed Central Dakota German, a written form. If you will look
at line (b), this is what you are trying to record for your own
dialect by making dialect tapes. It is the Central Dakota German
dialect presented as a written language. It was previously only
known as a spoken language. The Standard High German taught in the
German schools in Russia and by the churches here in America was
the written language.
Line (c) is nothing you need to worry
about. It is linguistics and it shows the phonemic sound system
of the dialect. It is writing the sentence in its basic sound system.
If you do not know how to pronounce the language, if you don't know
how to speak the language, you can follow it by using the phonemic
sentence. It is from identifying and creating this phonemic sound
system that I was able to create a written language for our Central
Dakota German dialect.
When you are interviewing and recording,
have the person express as much as he or she can in their dialect
on each of the 40 Wenker sentences. That tape recording then can
be saved as a permanent record of your dialect and your family's
dialect, just as you make photographic or written records of your
Eventually you should be able to
give the recording to someone who knows dialectology and can interpret
it for you. Because the Wenker sentences were sent to every school
in German speaking Europe (except Switzerland), they have an incredible
value in helping to determine where someone is from by the dialect
they speak. We here in the Dakotas have not yet been "discovered"
by German dialectologists. But they will come, and we will have
begun the fieldwork before it is too late.
A far more simple way to do a language
study yourself is through the use of what is known as the Mitzka
200-word list. This is Attachment 2. This list of words is easy
to use. Here you are not dealing with sentences; you are simply
dealing with words, and a few brief phrases.
The Mitzka list was developed by Walther
Mitzka, who was a follower of Wenker. But Mitzka thought that Wenker
did not give enough emphasis to synonyms. Synonyms are words that
are different, but mean the same thing. The Mitzka 200-word list
has been in use since 1939. It developed into the Deutsche Wortatlas
or German Word Atlas, which has 22 volumes and took until 1972 to
In each of the German Word Atlas
volumes are maps. I have with me two volumes of Mitzka dialect maps
for you to examine. Each map is based on only one of the 200 words
with the word given in Standard High German and then in all the
many dialect variations (synonyms) while showing you geographically
where each of the variations are located. This will enable you to
find the historical location of your dialect word on a geographic
You can select 10 or 12 or more words
from the Mitzka list. In fact, you can let your dialect speakers
choose words from the Mitzka list which they know in their dialect.
The dialect speaker will say, Mir saqen's so, which means, "We
say it this way". You will be amazed how well aware they are
of dialect differences, of what the word is in Standard High German,
and of how they express it. They will go on to tell you how someone
they know says it yet another way. Again I have given all the samples
in both Standard High German and English, and you can use either
language to elicit the dialect word.
Taking an example from the Mitzka
200-word list, one of the maps in this volume, which I have brought
with me, contains the word Schwiegermutter or "mother-in-law".
By looking at the map you can see the many different ways you can
say Schwiegermutter and exactly where each is located geographically.
There are several different
ways of saying mother-in-law in German dialect. You can locate where
the word your family uses is spoken. It is a geographical record.
If you do this with your 12 different words each one on its own
word map, you will start to isolate the geographic area in which
your dialect keeps reappearing. You will see a pattern and you will
find that your dialect speaker's words come from the same area of
Germany. You will have come close to identifying the dialect and
locating the general area from which your family originated.
The Standard High German word Schwiegersohn
for "son-in-law" becomes the word tochterman in the Central
Dakota German dialect. The word tochterman contrasts with most other
dialects and is a very good sample to use for identifying the Central
Dakota German dialect as Swabian.
I have two of the Mitzka volumes
on loan here with me. I would like to contribute to the buying of
the whole 22 volume set. It would be a wonderful resource in Michael
Miller's archive here at the North Dakota State University Library.
I receive only 10% from the sale of my book, The Central Dakota
Germans: Their History. Language. And Culture, and I would like
to use that money to help buy these volumes if that is possible,
so that they would be available to people doing dialect research.
As discussed at this morning's seminar
we often use a different word than another dialect speaker. As one
of the participants said, "We say, well you can say it your
way, but I say it this way." Well those words that you say
differently from someone else are the basis for using the Mitzka
word list. Ask the people in your family who still know how to speak
German about the words on this list and guaranteed they will know
enough of them for you to come up with a distinct few to research.
Those words will help answer some of your questions on which dialect
This is rather basic, not enough
to constitute a dialect study, but enough to address questions on
your dialect that are simply unanswerable to most of you here today.
There is not much I can do to teach linguistics and dialectology
in one hour. I do hope you are able to get a flavor of what it is
about and how you can contribute to making a record of our dialects
before they disappear.
What I am also suggesting to you
is that you can do the genealogy of your family in a different way,
complementing the genealogy of your family name, birth, and death
records. I'm asking you to do the genealogy of your family by doing
the genealogy of the words they speak. Your language contains your
cultural heritage. If you lose your language and you lose everything
that your language contained and preserved, you also lose your culture.
We don't think about language that way. All of these old customs
we still uphold could not have existed if they hadn't existed as
part of the language. The dialect maintained your religious customs;
it maintained the customs of the home, your proverbs, and your folk
traditions like brauche. As Professor Jean Schweitzer asked at the
end of his lecture yesterday, "How can you preserve your culture
without keeping the language?"
I found that the German dialect spoken
in the center of the two Dakotas is Swabian. Am I right? Well that
fits historically with our written and oral history, the history
found in history books and history as lived and remembered by our
old pioneers. It fits with our customs and traditions. If you no
longer have the records and you only know where you came from in
Russia, not Germany, you can find the general area in Germany from
which your family emigrated by working on your language and on your
customs and folk traditions. Your language and your customs and
folk traditions are another way of investigating your family history.
Someone asked at the seminar this
morning, "Well, which is the right German?" They meant
which is the Standard High German word. What we call Standard High
German is the standardization of German resulting from Martin Luther's
translation of the Bible into German. Before Luther's standardization
of the language you found only the dialects spoken by the different
groups or tribes of Germans like the Swabians, the Bavarians, the
Saxons, Franks, etc. Not only was the dialect spoken by a group,
but that group was part of the same small state or duchy. Germany
was not united as one nation until 1871.
On Attachment 3 you can see the names
of all the dialects and where they are located. Once you have located
the general area of Germany from which your dialect originates,
this map will tell you the name of the dialect area. Each dialect
has a value and each has its own distinct expression. It's not that
one is better than the other. Dialects are local languages still
spoken in the immediate community in the same areas where they have
existed for hundreds of years. Standard High German is the standardization
of German which is the common ground for all German speakers and
for teaching German language in the schools, for reading and writing,
for government and public life, for intellectual discourse.
What you find in a dialect and particularly
an old dialect like ours, are many old words that are from the Middle
Ages and preserved in our language. Standard High German has often
dropped these words, which also causes a difference between dialect
and High German. We have retained and still use old words like peterlinge,
our dialect word for parsley, or strele, our word for comb.
These words are from the Middle Ages. We still say maistub mache.
Many of you must know that expression. It is when you visit people,
when you get together to chat, to talk. That expression again goes
back to the Middle Ages, a time when the German language was quite
different from that of modern Standard High German. It was then
called majen. This lovely old expression still exists in
our Dakota German language. We have preserved it in our dialect.
There are also words like weib,
which are still used today. People from Germany would say it is
not a good word to use for woman because it is a little grob,
a little coarse. They use the word Frau. But if you study
German literature, sin wig is a well-known expression the
knights used. How much more important and classical can words be
than the expression sin wig from the age of knighthood. For
the knights this expression was very important, as is the expression
sein weib for us. It means the same beautiful thing. It is
the woman you love, the woman who is a part of you. It is not just
a legal state of matrimony, it is an identification, she is his
wife. We do not use the Standard High German word Frau. We consider
that a qrosstadt wort, that is a big city word and a woman
who is a bit too fancy.
An interesting thing to note about
the Germans from Russia is that they are true bilinguals. I don't
think we have focused on that. Many people come to America and they
know one language. Here they learn English. For a brief span of
time they know two languages. But for a very brief span of time,
a generation, while they are switching from one to the other language.
The Germans from Russia have always known two languages and think
nothing of it. In fact they knew more than two languages. When they
lived in Russia they had their own communities where they lived
together and everyone knew the German dialect of the community.
But everyone also knew the Standard High German language of their
German schools. The Lutheran church particularly, but the Mennonite
church and the Reformed all helped keep the language alive by having
church services in that language. The story for the Catholics is
all the more remarkable because Latin was the language used in their
celebration of the Catholic Mass.
The Germans from Russia knew not
only their German dialect and Standard High German, but they also
knew Russian. They learned the Russian language in their German
schools. They used Russian when they were in the army; they used
it in dealing with the government and with people in the market
place. Most of the Black Sea and Bessarabian Germans could also
speak a Romanian dialect known as Moldavian.
In their homes they always spoke
their German dialect, they never switched. The language of their
schools was Standard High German. The language of the greater community
in which they lived was Russian. They could speak Moldavian; they
dealt with Romanians, Bulgarians, Turks, and others at the markets.
When they came to America they were used to this linguistic situation
having always spoken two or more languages. They didn't think that
they had to immediately switch entirely to English. So when English
was taught in the schools instead of German, the dialect could still
live on. It didn't die. Our dialect had always been alive in the
home and we kept it alive in the home.
This is also one of the reasons why
we have so many old beautiful words in our language. When we moved
from Germany to Russia, we moved to what is called linguistic islands.
It is like a shipwreck. There is no influence from elsewhere. They
were isolated. They were not in Germany with the ongoing developments
and changes in the language. They kept the language they had when
they moved away from Germany, thus you find the many old words.
We are basically speaking 18th century German dialects.
What happens to a language when it
comes into contact with another language? It is influenced by the
other language if the contact is long and continuing. In Russia
the Germans lived in their own separate communities. They knew Russian,
studied it in language classes in their schools, but they were not
under any pressure to be Russian speakers. Some foreign words entered
the language, but because the Germans were in their own communities
and because they had their own German schools, they picked-up few
foreign words and these they simply added to their language. Attachment
4 is a word list of Russian, Romanian, and other foreign words,
which crept into our language.
For instance, one knew the word bastan
or large garden was Russian. It was the "sod" garden where
the crops that grew above ground such as watermelon, cucumber, pumpkins,
yellow melons, corn, were planted. The vegetables that grew below
ground, such as radishes, and the more delicate plants like lettuce,
were grown in a soft earth garden known as der garten, "the
garden." There is often a lot of meaning packed into a foreign
word which is why it becomes so useful to add to the language.
In the United States all the children
went to the country school with the other American children and
the language of the school was English. German was no longer used
in the schools. They were under pressure to be English speakers.
The English words learned at school began drifting into their German
language. The surprising thing is that there is so little English
in the Central Dakota German dialect.
For instance, in the Wenker 40 sentences
which I did with many different people, only two foreign words had
crept into the German dialect, prairie and farm. One of the reasons
for this is that the Wenker sentences are old, from 1876. Another
reason is that they are from the time when Germany was more of an
agrarian nation and we are an agrarian people. The vocabulary that
Wenker was using is very similar to our own vocabulary which has
remained unchanged. Prairie and farm were words that had to do with
where they were living. Again, these are also words that contain
a lot of meaning.
The German dialect of the Central
Dakotas remained unbelievably intact. Professor Kurt Rein from the
University of Munich, responsible for two of the German word atlases,
is well known in the field of socio-linguistics and dialect studies.
When he listened to my tapes and to language speakers he could not
believe how intact our Dakota German is and how this language still
lives. One of the features that shows the strength of the Central
Dakota German dialect is the fact that it has taken English words
into the language and made them into German words.
I would like to give you examples
now of English words which have crept into the dialect. They don't
show up in the Wenker sentences or Mitzka lists, but on the general
conversation tapes. It is very important to make a standard tape
like the 40 Wenker sentences and the 200 Mitzka words, but it is
equally important to make general conversation tapes. Conversations
that tell stories are helpful in retaining cultural heritage as
well as for expressing language style, vocabulary, and meaning.
Again, I won't go into how to record the conversation tapes as I
could not improve upon the presentation given by the Marquardts.
When researching oral history you
will start to pick up on English words incorporated into our dialect,
but you really need to be aware to be able to recognize them. As
I said, one of the reasons experts find our dialect so strong is
that these English words don't appear in the dialect as foreign
words. You don't even realize they're English words. When you meet
people who immigrated from Germany after World War II, you notice
that they use English words differently. They speak German and then
they simply insert English words. If you are a true dialect speaker
from the Dakotas you do not simply add an English word to your sentence.
You change it and you mold it and you make it German.
I'll explain how this is done.
For instance the word store. What
do they do to the word 'store' to change it to the dialect word
schtore? We don't have the phonemic sound "st"
in German; "st" in German becomes "scht" and
thus you have a German sounding word by making this phonemic change
from "stor" to "schtor". They changed it to
a German word with the same sound as is found in the word stein
'stone', or the German word most English speakers know, bierstein.
Thus, the word appears in the language as if it belonged there.
In dialect we say obstais
for "upstairs". People think this is a German word, but
it is not. It's the English word upstairs, but the dialect is so
strong that it just pulls it in, remolds it, and it comes out as
a German word.
The German word gleichen is
used to mean "to like". That's not the same meaning as
the Standard High German word which means "like" in the
sense of "to compare". Gleichen became the English
word "like" in all of its meanings, one of which is "to
like" as in "I like you" which the dialect expresses
as Ich gleich dich.
Another thing that happened is what linguists
call diffusion. The early pioneer Germans from Russia who had gone
to German schools wrote Fraktur, that is the old beautiful
German script. When they were no longer taught to write the script
in school they changed to the English system of writing. In Germany
today they also write the Latin letters as we do in English instead
of the old German script, but they kept the rest of the rules of
writing of their German system, particularly capital letters on
all nouns. We switched totally to the American English system and
capitalize whenever they do.
The dialect speakers also do what
is technically called loan blending. The technical definition is
not important. What it is, they borrow something from one language
and blend it with something already in their own language. What
is a strawberry? "Straw" means stroh in German
so instead of saying the Standard High German word Erdbeere,
"earth berry", they took the English "strawberry"
and call them strohbeere.
We also find mixed words which are
half dialect and half English. They use zurick baecke. Zurick
means to "go back" as does baecke which is simply the
English word "back". They use the two together. Huehnerzaun
is what you say in German for "chicken fence". Central
Dakota German hehnerfence uses the German word "chicken"
and the English word "fence".
What is known as interference in
the language is found in an expression like kalt kriege which
means "catch a cold" in dialect. In Standard High German
they say erkaelten. Dialect speakers know that in English
you "catch a cold" so they changed it and now they can
'catch cold' in German too, kalt kriege. Kalt stands
for "cold", kriegen means "to get". In
a different type of interference English "raspberry" interferes
with the Standard High German word Himbeere to give us the
dialect word raspbeere.
Another type of loan is simply a
new coinage; dialect words like feierwuermle, which comes
from "firefly" in English and Gluhwuermchen in
Standard High German. They took the English and German and produced
feierwuermle or "fire worm". Most dialect speakers
know that a Heuschrecke is a "grasshopper" yet,
they changed it to qrasshogfer. Using German grass and German
hogfer to express English "grass" and "hopper"
incorporated another new word into the dialect.
A beautiful example of a new word
is the example of the Standard High German word Sonnenblume.
We have so many "sunflowers" in Dakota and they could
have used a word which existed in their dialect. But, they changed
it and called them sonnenrose. What a lovely expression,
"sun roses". It could be because they had no roses here
on the prairie and we all know how much the German women loved flowers.
What is so amazing as one studies
language is that language changes are not just thrown in and said
differently as one pleases. They always follow a pattern. The basic
dialect, its form and its pronunciation, is in control of the changes.
The new words fit into the system of the language in a very orderly
Another interesting fact about the
Central Dakota German dialect which I found in my investigations,
is that we still have the old German words for sickness. Er hat
die sucht is what we would say in our dialect. We don't use
the Standard High German word Krankheit for "sickness"
or the Latin words which describe diseases. Research on the old
vocabulary of disease and health is facilitated by one of the books
written by Jacob Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie.
Luther and Grimm did the most important
work on the German language. Luther standardized German and Grimm
investigated language and language change. How do dialects work?
How do we determine and describe the language changes from one dialect
area to another? This is a very large topic and needs more time
than I have today.
But to return to Jacob Grimm and
the German words for illness, the words that he records as having
been the old German words for sickness and disease are the very
words we still use in our Dakota German dialect. In Grimm, I found
that the words, which we use, are the original German words that
had always been used. At some point at the beginning of the last
century, they changed all the words to Latin so that medical terminology
became international. Disease description and doctor's prescriptions
are done in Latin in Germany as well as here. But when you go to
our dialect, all the old words previously used in German are still
It so much reminds one of a relic.
It's like finding a buried treasure and its old; you investigate,
you scrape it off, and you say, "Look, look at this beautiful
relic which I have found."
What are some of these old ways of
expressing disease? What does the word sucht mean? The word
sucht was used to describe "diseases". Old German
words for diseases generally had the suffix sucht, such as
Gelbsucht "yellow jaundice". Sucht was considered
in the Christian sense to be "God's will". But in pre-Christian
understanding, it was the work of spirits. This belief in the working
of spirits is what had caused diseases to become personified. They
attack, they grab at you, they overcome you. People considered themselves
to have fallen prey to the disease. The family would simply resign
themselves and say, Ja, der hat die sucht. You knew it had
him, it was his destiny.
They used other words to personify,
like the word for fever. They would not simply say, "He has
a fever". They would say ER hat wildfeuer "He has
the wild fire". The fever was a wild fire racing through the
body. When you think about it, if you don't have any way to stop
a fever and you are burning up, it is like a wild fire, racing and
increasing. A fever could very well be thought of that way.
How do you treat these personifications?
Here is where we get into something, which we call brauche.
How many of you have ever dealt with the healers, the brauchere
in the community? I know Professor Timothy Kloberdanz has done a
lot of work on where they were located and how this practice existed
here on the prairie. My work is different and complements his investigations.
Mine is the language of brauche, what does it mean, what
are the actual verses, and how do you get into this meaning.
I have brauche verses which
I have collected from my grandmother and my mother, and from a well-known
brauchere, Eva Dockter Iszler in Ashley. Eva was probably
the most well known brauchere in recent times. I realized
when I read the Grimm materials that a lot of the old words he discussed
and regretted losing from the German language exist in our brauche
verses. After years of research I can explain some of the fascinating
story of brauche. We will never know it all for it is so
old that it predates our concepts of time and place.
The time today is too brief for me
to tell you all I have found on the custom of brauche. I
will therefore, explain the implications of only one of the verses
I have collected.
The words gichter "convulsions"
and gedarm "intestines" could refer in some respects
to colic according to Grimm. But at some point he says, it's more
than colic, it is ruhr "dysentery". I will tell
you about a verse for a child that is extremely sick with dysentery
and colic, and his intestines could well be twisted in pain. I looked
at the brauche verses after reading this in Grimm to see
if I could find something comparable to his explanations. I found
a brauche verse for darmgichter, a child's convulsions
and colic in the intestines.
A brauche verse has to be
said three times. Every part of the ritual is done in threes. Even
in pre-Christian times the Germanic people always had the belief
that the number three was the ultimate religious symbol. We Christians
have faith in the Holy Trinity, the powerful number three. The Christian
brauchere simply added to the brauche verses the Christian
blessing, Gott Vater, Gott Sohn. Gott Heiligergeist, "God
the Father, God the Son, God the Holy Ghost".
Here is the brauche verse
for darmgichter in Central Dakota German dialect and in English.
Es stehen drei jungfrauen an dem sand
sie haben das gedarmverrenk on der hand
eine zu der rechte und die andere links
und die andere gerade aus.
Three virgins are standing on the sand
they have the entrails in their hand
one to the right, the other to the left
and the other straight ahead.
The three virgins in the verse, standing
one to the right, the other to the left, and the third straight
ahead all holding the dislocated entrails or intestines, could well
be the three Fates in classical Greek and Roman mythology who determine
the length of the thread of life of each of us. Clotho who
spins the thread of life, Lachesis who draws out the thread,
and Atroos who cuts off the thread of life.
The same concept appears as a part
of Germanic mythology and here it is even closer to the verse above,
almost an identification of the verse as early Germanic. In Grimm's
book on German mythology we learn the three women were called norns
or nornir. The oldest was named Urthur, she is what
was, or the past. The middle one was Verthandi, what is,
or the present. The third one and youngest was Schuld, what
shall be, or the future. These three virgins allot to every man
his term of life. The norns spin the threads of fate, and
they stretch the golden cord; one norn to the east, another
to the west, a third to the north.
Compare this to the three virgins
in the verse, one to the right, the other to the left, and the other
straight ahead. The brauche verse is giving its due to the
power of the three who decide the length of the child's life. In
this acceptance of the power, she is asking for mercy.
Grimm found the belief in the three
nornir written in the Edda, which records the oldest
oral stories of the Germanic people, the Germans and the Scandinavians.
The Edda stories were written in the 13th and 14th century in Iceland
but the oral stories contained in it date to the years 800 or 900
A.D. and before.
If you study the brauche verses
you are working with language which has been encapsulated in an
earlier time because the verses have remained unchanged. They were
memorized and retained, passed on as a secret to the chosen daughter
who followed. You discover how old our language is and how old this
cultural heritage is which rests in our language. The ancient culture
is hidden inside the language of the verses.
In closing I would like to ask you
to join me, and begin your fieldwork and research. We have a lot
of work to do. We cannot miss this last window of opportunity before
our beautiful old dialects disappear and we lose much of our cultural
memory along with them.
Begin recording the dialect speakers
in your family and in your community. Have them say the 40 Wenker
sentences and be sure to remember to tell them that there is no
right or wrong way to say them. There is simply the way that they
would express them. Record dialect speakers and their choice of
synonyms from the Mitzka word list. These will prove invaluable
to you when trying to determine the origin of your dialect. Record
verses and poetry and proverbs. You will find that the older pioneers
as well as those whom I term the young pioneers because they were
born on the prairies of Dakota, know many beautiful songs. Recording
these songs is an important project which needs to be done.
But most importantly, let them tell
you their stories. Record our history as told by them in their own
personal history which I call, the remembered past.
It would be a strain to do all of
this with one person at one sitting. You have to do it over several
sessions. You will find, though, that people are just so thrilled
and so grateful that you really care about their language and that
you want to learn about the culture. They will begin to remember
more as you work with them. You will find a lot of pain in their
remembrance of incredible hardships, but you will also find happiness
and a deep and abiding faith in God. This faith is the underpinning
of the story of the Germans from Russia. Thank you.
Followed by a question and answer session.