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Off-Farm Employment and Income of North Dakota Farm Families

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Title: Off-Farm Employment and Income of North Dakota Farm Families
Author: Leholm, Arlen G.; Vreugdenhil, Harvey G.; Ekstrom, Brenda L.; Leistritz, F. Larry
Description: In 1986, the then current economics in agriculture were forcing many families off of the farm into non-agricultural employment. In 1986, nationally, off farm employment including wages, interest, dividends, rent of non-farm real estate and social security or pension payments accounted for approximately 60% of the total income of farm families. From the period between 1884-85, non-farm work accounted for about 30% of income to farm families. When farm families are bringing in less income from farming activities, they have lass income to spend at retailers, etc. This frustrates the efforts of farm families needing non-farm jobs by having less non-farm opportunities to obtain. The focus of this article is to address the off-farm employment activities of both farmers and ranchers in North Dakota. Data regarding off-farm jobs, farm family income, demographics, farm characteristics and financial characteristics was culled from telephone interview surveys conducted in 1986. North Dakota farm operators were most often employed in agriculture or construction jobs whereas their spouses tended to be employed in professional occupations such as teaching or nursing or in sales in retail. The goal of off-farm employment was/is to supplement family income. Increasing both job search skills and techniques would aid in their abilities to fulfill their off-farm income opportunities. In addition, external economic investment may be required to actualize these off-farm opportunities in economically challenged areas.
Date: 1986
Subject: Labor
Economics
Families
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/10365/8077

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