Kolonie Zuerichtal: Vor 200 Jahren von Schweizer Auswanderern Gegruendet
"The Colony of Zuerichtal, Founded 200 Years ago by Swiss Immigrants." Volk auf dem Weg, Autumn 2004, 26-33.
Translation from German to American English by Alex Herzog, Boulder, Colorado
It was not only in America where Swiss immigrants in the 19th and 20th centuries found a new home and established settlements. Several Eidgenossen [historical term for Swiss citizens] also went eastward, into the Russian Tsarist Empire. Two villages in Ukraine even today remain silent witnesses to this historic event. One of those two Swiss settlements is Zuerichtal, founded 200 years.
Since the time of Peter the Great (who governed between 1689 and 1725), several Swiss people have left traces in Russia -- engineers, business people and scientists, teachers, clerics and officers, cheese makers, bakers and watchmakers. In addition to these folks with special skills or trades, all respected and in high demand in the Tsarist Empire (roughly 7,000 to 8,500 up to World War I), in two cases whole groups of impoverished Swiss emigrated to Russia, in order to flee from economic misery and to create a new life as farmers in the Tsarist Empire. And thus sprang up the Swiss colonies of Zuerichtal on Crimea (founded in 1850) and Sabo in Bessarabia (founded in 1821/22, SW of Odessa near the Black Sea (Note 1).
While Sabo was settled primarily by French-speaking vintners from the Canton of Waadt, the roughly 50 founding families of Zuerichtal were exclusively from German Switzerland, the majority from the Canton of Zuerich. Soon after, colonists from South German principalities also settled in Zuerichtal. Since World War II, during which Stalin ordered the deportation of the entire German-speaking population of Zuerichtal, as he did with all other German settlements, the village is known by the name of Zalotoe Pole (Note 2). Only few traces of the Swiss colonists can be found today. The most striking memorial to the Zuerichtal times is represented by the church erected in 1860, situated on a hill at the village entrance. In the early 1990s the building was renovated and now serves as a Russian-Orthodox house of worship (Note 3).
An Arduous Journey and Difficult Beginnings on Crimea
It was mostly impoverished silk and cotton spinners and weavers, but also primarily farmers, who were persuaded by recruiters of Tsar Alexander I to emigrate from Switzerland to the Crimean Peninsula. They had suffered from an economical crisis caused by the decline of the Swiss manual spinning trade subsequent to the rise of machine spinning in England, or they feared being forced to serve in the military of the French, who were dominating Europe at the time.
155 of the 240 eager to emigrate (Note 4) came from the Canton of Zuerich, primarily from the villages of Affoltern an the Albis, Bonstetten, Hausen, Hirzel, Mettmenstetten, Seebach and Wallisellen (Note 5). The arduous journey of these Swiss toward the Russian Empire began in the late fall of 1803 in Konstanz on the Bodensee, under the direction of the chief recruiter, Hans Caspar Escher (Note 6). Following the bankruptcy of his own firm in 1789, the former big businessman Escher of Zuerich had emigrated to the Tsarist Empire, where he had joined the Russian military and had reached the rank of major in the Moscow Dragoon Regiment. The trip, in ships and on wagons, proceeded via Regensburg, Vienna, Pressburg (Bratislava), the Tatra Mountains, and Lemberg (Lviv') to Crimea. Along the way, many emigrants lost courage and turned back. A group of people from Lucerne remained in Vienna and found work there (Note 7). 30 to 40 people, primarily children, died of smallpox during that trip (Note 8). The group grew during the journey with a group of Germans also desiring to emigrate (Note 9).
During the summer of 1804, the immigrants, now numbering 228 persons, arrived in Crimea. This can be read in the a document in the State Archives of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea in Simferopol'. The document of 1916 is a Russian translation of the French-language original (Note 10) of 1804, which contained a list of all immigrants who, under Escher's guidance, had arrived in Crimea, and it was signed by Escher himself. According to this document, the Swiss immigrant group, in addition to 136 women, men and children from the Canton of Zuerich, included citizens from the Cantons of Aargau, Bern, Freiburg, Glarus, Graubuenden, Lucerne, Neuenburg, Solothurn, St. Gallen and Waadt (Note 11).
Initially the immigrants were settled under very poor conditions amidst the open steppe, before they were able to resettle in 1805 in the village of Dzeylav, which had been inhabited by Crimean Tatars and was situated near the major trading road Simferopol'-Feodosiya. It was here, on the Indol Creek, that the Swiss village was subsequently established, and the immigrants named it Zuerichtal (Note 12) in memory of their hometown.
Life of the colonists was initially characterized by many difficulties. On the one hand, the weavers and spinners had hardly any experience with farming, and the farmers themselves needed to adjust to the new climatic and soil conditions. On the other hand, the village was beset by diseases, grasshopper infestations, and failed harvests. Dozens of Swiss immigrants died during the initial years of the village. For these reasons, 25 families -- most of them Catholics -- from the steppes northeast of Crimea were resettled in Zuerichtal (Note 13). Particularly terrible for the people was a wave of fevers during the spring of 1812, which counted 40 adult Swiss as victims (Note 14).
Gradually, however, the situation improved. Turning to the cultivation of wheat, animal husbandry (initially primarily sheep - Note 15), and (later) growing fruit trees and grapes began to bring increased success; a mill was erected on the creek, the settlement grew, additional land was purchased, and by 1848 there were as many as 74 properties with an average of 44 hectares (Note 16).
Zuerichtal, just as the rest of colonist villages, all exempted from military service, benefited from the Crimean War (1853-1856) because they were able to sell foodstuffs to the Russian army and, with the extra income they were able to acquire additional land (Note 17). The descendants of the poor-as-mice Swiss immigrants had become prosperous, and some had even become major landholders. Zuerichtal was soon considered to be the most prosperous and finest settlements among the (by then) numerous German colonies on Crimea (Note 18).
1822: A Swiss Pastor Arrives in Zuerichtal
Not only the economic situation was improving, but church life developed in a positive manner as well. During its initial years, Zuerichtal enjoyed very little spiritual care. Only once a year Karl Biller, the second pastor to arrive in South Russia and, during his initial years of work the only Evangelical cleric in this gigantic region (Note 19), would visit the Zuerichtal colony from Josesfstal in the Ekaterinoslavl area (Note 20), hundreds of kilometers distant. Services would be held in living rooms before the Zuerichtal residents finally built a modest church building in 1820.
The fact that Heinrich Dietrich from Schwarzenbeck in the Canton of Zuerich finally settled in Zuerichtal as pastor in 1822 the Swiss colony owed to the efforts of the Missionary Society of Basel. On the urging by Dr. Pinkerton, a representative of a British and foreign Biblical Society based in St. Petersburg, the Missionary Society of Basel, founded in 1815, decided to make South Russia the main focus of its work. They were not only concerned with the spiritual care of German farmer colonies, but also interested in doing missionary work among the Muslims, and primarily the Tatars, living in that area (Note 21) .
Following a trip through South Russia, Pinkerton had written to the Missionary Society of Basel: "They cry out to you for help. Could you perhaps send two or three pious young folks who might seek out and gather these lost sheep, and should funds be somehow made available for this undertaking, much good could be done, and truly! -- their souls are not worth any less than those of the heathens. The Germans on whose behalf I am pleading are surrounded by pagans and Mohammedans, and your missionaries could serve these as well." (Note 22)
But before the Missionary Society of Basel could operating in South Russia, they needed to acquire permission from the Russian government. In 1821, a delegation obtained permission in person from Prince Golicyn and Star Alexander in St. Petersburg. Regarding missionary work among the Muslims, however, the Russian government reserved the right to decide about each case of individual conversion to the Evangelical Church. With that reservation, Golicyn was attempting to accommodate the Russian Orthodox Church, which looked rather askance at the good will shown by the Tsarist Court toward the Evangelical Church, and which regarded the missionizing of the Muslims in Russia as its own responsibility. Not one village pastor of the Basel Missionary Society would ever convert a Muslim of South Russia to the Christian faith -- apparently their workload within the colonist villages was too great, and they found it too difficult to approach those who might have been converted (Note 23). On October 28, 1835 Tsar Nikolay I withdrew permission ranted earlier to Basel for doing missionary work in Russia (Note 24).
The leadership of the Missionary Society of Basel decided initially to send two Swiss pastors to Crimea -- Heinrich Dietrich of Schwerzenbach, Canton of Zurich, to the Zuerichtal area, and Durs Boerlin of Oberndorf, at the time part of the Canton of Basel, to the Neusatz area. After the two Basel missionaries' ordination in Moscow on May 16, 1822 (Note 25), they arrived at their places of work in the summer of 1822. According to various reports from the colonies (Note 26), these pastors met with great success in their spiritual and pastoral work. As was the custom in German farming colonies, the pastor did not only concentrate on spiritual assignments, but was also responsible for the school.
All in all, they were probably the most highly respected people of authority in the colonies. Of his predecessor Heinrich Dietrich, Pastor Emil Kyber would write: "[The colonists] received renewed courage when the first pastor, Heinrich Dietrich, arrived from Switzerland. A new, better state of affairs developed very quickly. The small church building that had been put up shortly before his arrival was soon followed by a handsome pastor's home and a spacious school building. Two smaller, affiliated communities (Note 27) also erected chapels for use in church services. Pastor Dietrich provided a good example and sternly criticized any abuses. He particularly performed outstanding work in selecting and training a village teacher and in introducing better singing (Note 28)."
Magnificent Church and Seat of a Diocese
However, Heinrich Dietrich died in September, 1827, only 33 years of age. And a year and a half earlier, Durs Boerlin had lost his life via an accident in a horse-drawn wagon. The Missionary Society of Basel did re-staff these pastoral positions relatively quickly with its own trainees. To Neusatz they sent Friedrich Wilhelm Fletnittzer, a Saxon by birth, who had spent several years prior as a curate in Odessa. Zuerichtal received the newly assigned pastor Christian Friedrich Lylius, but he soon transferred to Neusatz in 1831. Successor to Pastor Kylius was Emil Kyber, a native of Riga, and he served Zuerichtal as pastor from 1831 to 1858. Pastor Kyber was the very first Baltic-German and the first to be educated in Dorpat -- that is, outside the Tsarist Empire -- to serve as a pastor in Crimea (Note 29).
In 1860 a magnificent church was erected in the middle of the settlement on a hill between the lower and upper villages. Eventually Zuerichtal became seat of a diocese which by the end of the 19th Century comprised 36 farming colonies plus the cities of Stariy Krym, Feodosiya and Kerc' (Note 30). A kind of denominational consolidation had also taken place -- the Catholics had moved away to found settlements in the steppes, and the Reformed -- most of the original colonists were among these -- had united with the large number of immigrant Schwabian Lutherans from Baden, and as a result the Reformed confession disappeared entirely (Note 31). Of the original immigrants who had arrived in Crimea in 1804 under Escher's direction, many of whom ended up founding Zuerichtal, 13 persons were Catholic, and the remainder were Reformed (Note 32).
The following pastors served in the parish established by Pastor Heinrich Dietrich in 1822 (Note 33):
-- 1822 - 1827: Heinrich Dietrich,
born in 1794 in Schwerzenbach, Canton of Zuerich,
died in 1827 in Sudak/Crimea.
-- 1828 - 1831: Christian Friedrich Kylius,
born in 1803 in Lahr/Baden,
died in 1855 in Neusatz.
-- 1831 - 1858: Emil Kyber,
born in 1804 in Riga,
died in 1873 in Nikolayev, NE of Odessa.
-- 1858 - 1859: Nikolay Alexander Dobbert,
born in 1830 in Riga,
died in 1902 (or later) in Sarskoye Selo near St. Petersburg.
-- 1859 - 1870: Friedrich August Thiedemann,
born in Germany (birth year unknown),
(year and location of death are unknown).
-- 1870 - 1889: Carl Wilhelm Segnitz,
born in 1837 in Reval (Note 37),
died in 1894 in Bad Cannstatt, Wuerttemberg.
-- 1890 - 1901: Heinrich Lhotzky,
born in 1859 in Klausnitz/Saxony,
died in 1930 in Ludwigshafen on the Bodensee.
-- 1901 - 1907: Bernhand Groundstroem,
born in 1875 in Ingermannland,
(year and location of death are unknown).
-- 1908 - 1924: Emil Cholodetzky,
born in 1874, place of birth unknown,
shot in 1924 in August, 1924, in Simferopol'/Crimea.
-- (As adjunct) 1925 - 1927: Albert Mayer,
born in 1892 in Totanai/Crimea,
(year and location of death are unknown).
-- 1927 - 1933: Johann Seydlitz,
born in 1889 in Schaffhausen/Volga,
was arrested and died in 1937 in Feodosiya/Crimea.
Schwabian and Swiss-German: Mixing Dialects
During 1860, the same year the new Zuerichtal church was dedicated, descendants of the colonists founded the village of Neu-Zuerichtal (Note 35) 7 kilometers northeastward in the steppes, one of many daughter colonies that were established as a result of economic prosperity and population growth (Note 36). By the end of World War I there were 314 German-language settlements (Note 37). By 1918 Zuerichtal numbered 590 inhabitants, and in 1923 the number was 738 (Note 38). However, many of these were no longer direct descendants of Swiss people, since in the meantime numerous German emigrants (many Schwabians) had settled in Zuerichtal (Note 39). And hardly anyone from Switzerland had followed the original emigrant village founders (Note 40). Besides, Zuerichtal was surrounded primarily by colonist villages with settlers from Baden, Wuerttemberg, and the Palatinate -- and love did not stop at village boundaries. This had its effect on the local language, meaning that in Zuerichtal there developed a Schawbian/Swiss-German dialect which with time was dominated more and more by South German elements. (Note 41). Additionally, children of the second and third generations also acquired some Russian and Crimean/Tataric (Note 42). Their mother tongue was their German dialect, but the language of instruction in the schools was High German (Note 43).
At the same time as dialects were being compromised, consciousness of ancestry became increasingly lost. More and more, it became unimportant whether one's ancestors came to Zuerichtal from Switzerland or from some German principality -- most felt bound as Germans to the colonists of surrounding colonies (Note 44). This was enforced even more by the fact that every Zuerichtal farmer was a Russian citizen at the same time (Note 45). Only specific family names such as Luessi, Dubs, Aberli, Voolenweider, Huber or Naeff demonstrated Swiss ancestry (Note 46).
World War I and the Bolshevik Revolution left their traces in Zuerichtal, too. The Swiss, who had generally become "Germanized," were not spared the effects of the liquidation laws passed in 1915 (disowning of German landowners) anymore than the [truly] German settlers. Although the interim government invalidated these law retroactively after the Revolution, from about 1929 onward, though, the Bolsheviks drove collectivization forward even more forcefully. Some Zuerichtal residents acceded only against their will, and some refused to do so entirely. Consequently, some farmers of Zuerichtal who were not prepared to give up the greater part of their possessions were simply "taken away" and deported to the Urals (Note 47). During the early 1930s the church was closed entirely and transformed into a house of culture, while the bell tower was destroyed (Note 48).
The End for Zuerichtal
World War II signified the final end for Zuerichtal. In 1941, Stalin's decree that all Germans were to be considered "enemies of the State" and deported also hit the village founded by the Swiss. The Zuerichtal residents were given one day to get ready to pack up basic necessities before, on August 18 to be exact, they were sent on a long, arduous journey to Kazakhstan, a trek that brought death to many. In the exile regions they, like all other Germans, were a source of laborers and were distributed to various collectives or were forced to work in work camps of the so-called Trudarmy, where many were often lost entirely (Note 49).
In the meantime, homes now standing empty in Zuerichtal were re-inhabited by Russians and Crimean Tatars the. When Hitler's troops entered Crimea, they found only 960 German speaking persons left there (Note 50).
After the war, Zuerichtal, like all other German settlements, was renamed and became known as Zolotoe Pole ever since. By 2003 the place numbered 3,500 inhabitants.
-- Excerpts from a letter of Pastor Kyper, written in the year
Antistes G. Gessner, in: Heimatbuch der Deutschen aus Russland, p. 155.
[Sorry, year of that publication is not given. Tr.]
-- Gosudartbenniy archiv pri Sovete ministrov Avtonomonoy Respubliki Krym
GA ARK, fond 27, opis' 16, delo 254, list 1-3, Spisok kolonistov sveycarcev.
N. F. Bugay, Deportaciya naradov Krymna, Moscow, 2002.
Jakob Etterlin, Die ehemaligen Schweizerkolonien in Russland, die
Ukraine, die Krim, das Donezgebiet, der Kaukasus, die Wolga und ihr Gebiet [The
former Swiss Colonies in Russian, Ukraine, Crimea, the Donez Region, the
Caucasus, the Wolga and Region], Bern, 1945.
August Wilhelm Fechner, Chronik der evang. Gemeinden in Moskau,
[Chronicle of the Evang. Community of Moscow, vol. 1], Moscow, 1876.
Willy Fischer, Die Schweizerkolonie Zuerichtal aud der Krim und
erster Pfarrer, Heinrich Dietrich von Schwerzenbach [The Swiss Colony of
Zuerichtal on Crimea and its First Pastor, Heinrich Dietrich of Schwerzenbach], found
in: Eine jaehrliche Dokumentation (1978), pp. 20-39
Dagmar Koeck, Norbert Ruetsche, Gwendolyn Sasse et al, Die Krim
entdecken. Unterwegs auf der Sonneninsel im Schwarzen Meer [Discovering Crimea. On
Tour of the Island of the Sun in the Black Sea], Berlin(3) 2004.
M. Kravcova, Krym, see: Nemcy Ukrainy. Pilotniy shornik. Materialy,
enciklopedii "Nemcy Rossii," vol, 7, Moscow 2002, pp. 113-116.
Johannes Kuenzig, Zuerichtal und Schaba -- zwei Schweizer Bauerndoerfer
im Schwarzmeergebit [Zuerichtal and Schaba -- two Swiss Farming Villages in
the Black Sea Area], see; Syntagma Friburgense, Historische Studien Hermann
Aubin, dedicated to the 70th birthday on 12/23/1955, vol. 1, Lindau/Konstanz
1856, pp. 87-106.
Arnold Laett, Schweizer in Russland, see: Jakob Etterlin, Die ehemaligen
Schweizerkolonien in Rusland, die Ukraine, die Krim, das Donezgebiet, der
Kaukasus, die Wolga und ihr Gebeit [The former Swiss Colonies in Russian,
Ukraine, Crimea, the Donez Region, the Caucasus, the Wolga and Region], Bern 1945,
Yuriy Laptev, Viktor RAizer (Hg.), Nemcy v Krymu. Deustche auf
[Germans on Crimea], Simferopol' 2000.
Gerold Meyer von Knonau, Historisch-geographisch-statistisches
der Schweiz: Der Canton Zuerich [Hostorical, Geographical, Statistical
Picture of Switzerlan: The Canton of Zuerich], vol. 1, St. Gallen/Bern, (2) 1844
Hans Petri, Zuerichtal auf der Halbinsel Krim und Schweizer als
in sueddeutschen Gemeinden [Zuerichtal on the Crimean Peninsula and Swiss
Pastors in South Russian Communities]: see: Theologische Zeitschrift, published
by the Theological Faculty of the University of Basel (1963), pp. 180-194.
Urs Rauber, Zuerichtal -- ein Schweizer Dorf auf der Krim. Aus
Geschichte der Russlandschweizer [Zuerichtal -- a Swiss Village on Crimea. From
the History of the Russian-Swiss]; see: Tages-Anzeiger Magazin 20 (1978), pp.
N. A. Ruetsche, Sveycarskie kolonisty v Krymu: koloniya Cyurichtal',
see: Krymskiy respublikanskiy kraeevedceskiy muzeiy/Krymskiy etnografieceskiy
muzeiy/Krymskoye etdelenie instituta vostokovedeniya im. E.A. Krymskoyo
Nacuional'noy Akademii nauj Ukrainiy, Etnografiya Kryma XI-XX vv. i sovrememnye
etnokul'-turnye processy. Materialy i issledovanisya. Simferopol' 2002, pp.
Joseph Schnurr (ed.), Die Kirchen und das religioese Leben der
Russlanddeutschen. Evangelischer Teil [The Churches and Religious Life of the
German-Russians. Evangelical-Lutheran Portion]. Stuttgart (2), 1978.
Karl Stumpp, Die Auswanderung aus Deutschland nach Russland in
Jahren 1763 bis 1872 [Emigration from Dermany to Russia During the Years 1763 -
1872], Stuttgart (7) 1995.
Karl Stumpp, Die Pastoren der evangelisch-lutherischen Kirche in
Suedrussland von 1789 - 1910 [Pastors of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in South
Russia, 1789 - 1910]; see: Heimatbuch der Deutschen aus Russland (1960), pp. 81
Karl Stumpp, Verzeichnis der ev. Pastoren in den einzelnen deutschen
und gemischten Kirchspielen in Russland bzw. der Sowietunion, ohne Baltikum und
Polen [Index of Pastors in the varius German and Mixed Parishes in Russia or
the Soviet Union, not Including the Baltic Region and Poland]; see: Joseph
Schnurr (Hg.), Die Kirchen und das religioese Leben der Russlanddeutschen.
Evangelischer Teil, Stuttgart (2) 1978, pp. 116-234. [Cf. above. Tr.]
Karl Stumpp, Th. Eisenbrunn, Verzeichnis der deutschen Siedlungen
der Halbinsel Krim [Index of the German Settlements on the Crimean Peninsula];
see: Heimatbuch der Deutschen aus Russland (1960), pp. 182-190.
Marion Weisbrod-Buehler, Zuerichtal, eine Bauernkolonie in der
Die Tragoedie der Aemtler Auswanderer von 1803 [Zuerichtal -- a Farming Colony
on Crimea; Tragedy of the Emigrants from Aemt of 1803]; Affoltern a.A. 1961.
Ernst Zeugin, Vom Wirken der Basler Mission auf der Halbinsel Krim
19. Jahrhundert [On the Work of the Basel Mission on the Crimean Peninsula in
the 19th Century], in: Baselbieter Heimatbuch, Paul Suter zum 70. Geburtstag;
see: Baselbieter Heimatbuch.
In rendering the names of Russian names of persons or locales and
Russian expressions using the Latin alphabet we are using scientific
tranliteration. This provides a unique re-transliteration into the Cyrillic.
However, for personal names for which there already is a commonly
transliteration, we do not use the scientific mode in consideration of readability.
For example, this applies to the name Krim [in German], whereas the correct
scientific transliteration would actually be Krym. [Translator's Note: I
have also made a few changes in transliterating to English. Furhermore, book
titles, once translated herein from the German are usually not translated in
subsequent quotations. Russian titles are not translated herein.]
(1) Cf. Johannes Kuenzig, Zuerichtal und Schaba -- zwei Schweizer
Bauerndoerfer im Schwarzmeergebiet [Zuerichtal and Schaba -- two Farming Villages in
the Black Sea Region]; see: Syntagma Friburgense. Historische Studien, vol.
1, Lindau/Constance 1956, pp. 88-99.
(2) Cf. N. F. Bugaiy, Deportaciya narodov Kryma, Moscow 2002, p. 133.
(3) Confirmed by the Orthodox priests of Zolotoe Pole in a conversation
with the author during the fall of 2002.
(4) Cf. Willy Fischer, Die Schweizerkolonie Zuerichtal auf der Krim und ihr
erster Pfarrer, Heinrich Dietrich von Schwerzenbach [The Swiss Colony of
Zuerichtal on Crimea and its First Pastor, Heinrich Dietrich of Schwerzenbach];
see: Volketvil 1978. Eine jaehrliche Dokumentation (1878), p. 22.
(5) Gerold Meyer von Kronau. Historisch-geographisch-statistisches Gemaelde
der Schweiz. Der Canton Zuerich. vol. 1, St. Gallen-Bern (2) 1844, p. 233.
Also Jakob Etterling, Die ehemaligen Schweizerkolonien in Russland, die
Ukraine, die Krim, das Donezgebiet, der Kaukasus, die Wolga und ihr Gebiet, Bern
1945, p. 52. In part, Etterlin bases his remarks mainly on the
"Neujahrsblatt der Zuercherischen Huelfsgesellschaft" and on the "Neujahrsblatt des
Waisenhauses Zuerich 1848."
(6) Cf. Marion Weisbrod-Buehler, Zuerichtal, eine Bauernkolonie in der
Krim. Dir Tragoedie der Aemtler Auswanderer von 1803, Affoltern a.A. 1961, p. 19.
(7) See Jakob Etterlin, Die ehemaligen Schweizerkolonien, p. 52.
(8) See excerpt from a 1839 letter by Pastor Kyper to Antistes G.. Gessner;
in: Heimatbuch der Deutschen aus Russland (1960), p. 155.
(9) Along with the Swiss group of emigrants in 1804, at least 18 persons
from German principalities arrived on Crimea (see Gosudarstvenniy archiv pri
Sovete ministrov Avtonomnoy Rspublik Krym GA ARK, fond 27, opis' 16, delo 254,
ist 1-3, Spisok kolonistov sveycarcev).
(10) The original no longer exists.
(11) See GA ARK, Spisok kolonistov sveycarcev.
(12) See Weisbrod-Buehler, Zuerichtal, p. 36.
(13) See Ernst Zeugin, Vom Wirken der Basler Mission auf der Halbinsel Krim
im 19. Jahrhundert, in: Baselbieter Jeimatbuch. Paul Suter zum 70.
Geburtstag gewidmet, vol. II, Liestal 1969, p. 187.
(14) See Hans Petri, Zuerichtal auf der Halbinsel Krim und Schweizer als
Pfarrer in suedrussichen Gemeinden, in: Theologische Zeitschrfit, publ. by the
Theological Faculty of the University of Basel (1963), p. 183.
(15) See Fischer, Die Schweizerkolonie Zuerichtal, p. 26.
(16) See Kuenzig, Zuerichtal und Schaba, p. 93.
(17) See Petri, Zuerichtal auf der Halbinsel Krim, p. 192.
(18) See Kuenzig, Zuerichtal und Schaba, p. 94.
(19) See Karl Stumpp, Die Pastoren der evangelisch-lutherischen Kirche in
Suedrussland von 1789-1910, in: Heimatbuch der Deutschen aus Russland (!960),
(20) Today known as Dnipropetrovs'k, Ukraine.
(21) See Kuenzig, Zuerichtal und Schaba, pp. 186 ff.
(22) See Kuenzig, Zuerichtal und Schaba, citation from W. Schlatter,
Geschichte der Baseler Mission 1815-1915, 1916, p. 93.
(23) See Petri, Zuerichtal auf der Halbinsel Krim, pp. 186 ff.
(24) Zeugin, Vom Wirken der Basler Mission, p. 189.
(25) See August Wilhelm Fechner, Chronik der evang. Gemeinden in Moskau,
vol. 1, Moscow 1876, p. 125.
(26) See Petri, Zuerichtal auf der Halbinsel Krim, pp. 189 ff.
(27) In all likelihood these are probably Heilbronn, a village neighboring
Zuerichtal, and the vintner settlement of Sudak near the coastal city of that
name, both being part of the Zuerichtal church community.
(28) Excerpt from a letter by Pastor Kyper, p. 155.
(29) See Petri, Zuerichtal auf der Halbinsel Krim, pp. 190 ff.
(30) See Weisbrod-Buehler, Zuerichtal, pp. 46 ff.
(31) See Kuenzig, Zuerichtal und Schaba, pp. 190 ff.
(32) See GA ARK, Spisok kolonistov sveycarcev.
(33) See Karl Stumpp, Verzeichnis der ev. Pastoren in den einzelnen
deutschen und gemischten Kirchspielen in Russland bzw. der Sowietunion, ohne
Baltikum und Polen [Index of Pastors in the varius German and Mixed Parishes in
Russia or the Soviet Union, not Including the Baltic Region and Poland]; see:
Joseph Schnurr (Hg.), Die Kirchen und das religioese Leben der
Russlanddeutschen. Evangelischer Teil, Stuttgart (2) 1978, pp. 116-234. [Cf.
(34) Today known as Tallinn.
(35) Today the village is named Krasnogrvardyekoe.
(36) See Karl Stumpp, Th. Eisenbrunn, Verzeichnis der deutschen Siedlungen
auf der Halbinsel Krim [Index of the German Settlements on the Crimean
Peninsula]; see: Heimatbuch der Deutschen aus Russland (1960), p. 188.
(37) See Kuenzig, Zuerichtal und Schaba, p. 89.
(38) See Karl Stumpp, Th. Eisenbrunn, Verzeichnis der deutschen Siedlungen,
(39) See Kuenzig, Zuerichtal und Schaba, p. 94.
(40) See Urs Rauber, Zuerichtal -- ein Schweizer Dorf auf der Krim. Aus
der Geschichte der Russlandschweizer; see: Tages-Anzeiger Magazin 20 (1978),
(41) Meyer von Kronau, Historisch-geographisch-statistisches Gemaelde der
Schweiz, p. 223.
(42) See Kuenzig, Zuerichtal und Schaba, p. 94.
(43) Confirmed to the author in many conversations, 2000-2003, with Irma
Yakovlevna Tarusova-Ille (b. 1919), the only person born in Zuerichtal and
living on Crimea again since 2003.
(44) Confirmed in a conversation with Irma Yakovlevna Tarusova-Ille.
(45) See Rauber, Zuerichtal -- ein Schweizer Dorf auf der Krim, p. 6.
(46) See Karl Stumpp, Die Auswanderung aus Deutschland nach Russland in den
Jahren 1763 bis 1872 [Emigration from Germany to Russia During the Years
1763 - 1872], Stuttgart (7) 1995, pp. 939-939, also confirmed in a conversation
with Irma Yakovlevna Tarusova-Ille.
(47) See Kuenzig, Zuerichtal und Schaba, p. 95.
(48) See Kuenzig, Zuerichtal und Schaba, p. 96, also confirmed in a
conversation with Irma Yakovlevna Tarusova-Ille.
(49) See M. Kravcova, Krym, in: Nemcy Ukrainy. Pilotniy shornik.
Materialy, k enciklopedii "Nemcy Rossii," vol, 7, Moscow 2002, p 116, also confirmed
in a conversation with Irma Yakovlevna Tarusova-Ille.
(50) See Kuenzig, Zuerichtal und Schaba, p. 95.
|Cutout from a Crimea map of the 1930's, with Zuerichtal about 15 kilometers NW of Stariy Krym, on the Indol Creek||The former Evangelical-Lutheran Zuerichtal church, which today serves as a Russian-Orthdox house of worship in Zolotoe Pole|
|Even though the bell tower was detonated in the 1930s, the church of today's Zolotoe Pole still represents the most visible memory of the Zuerichtal times||Situated on the village entrance on the hill between the lower and upper villages, the church that was erected by Zuerichtal residents in 1860.|
|The pastor's manse: The pastors of
Zuerichtal lived in
this splendid building.
|This building in the lower village
was the residence of
the village doctor of Zuerichtal.
|The Zuerichtal lower village, today
known as ulica Kirova.
||The Zuerichtal upper village, today known as ulica Lenina.|
|A residenc in the upper villlage. In the background a building of the Vinzavod of Zolotoe Pole.||This building contained the Zuerichtal
|The teachers of the Gymnasium resided in living quarters built expressely for them adjacent to the Gymnasium.||Irma Yakovlevna was born as Irma Ille in Zuerichtal. She is the only resident of Zuerichtal who today lives in the Criema again.|
Our Appreciation is extended to Alex Herzog for translation of this article