Bessarabia: Homeland in Pictures
Cover Photo: Bessarabia: A Ressetlement, A ship arrives in Prahowo
Dear countrymen: Dear friends of the Bildkalendar (pictorial calendar),
We are pleased by your interest in the Heimat Kalendar, Bessarabia: Heimat in Bild 1985 and hope it will be your companion through a good year.
The pictorial calendar appeared for the fourteenth time in 1985. As in previous years, our aim is to reflect the private life in Bessarabia.
The Bildkalendar also serves to give information about the museum work.
The special event was the 140-year celebration of the Werner School. It took place on September 22, 1984. For that reason we would like to report its significance to Bessarabian life.
The Werner School – Teacher Training information is Sarata
The Werner school was the first teacher training school in Russia. Its origin and prerequisites for founding were contained in the endowment by Christian Friedrich Werner of Sarata. He donated an endowment of 25,000 rubles in silver.
Christian Friedrich Werner was born in Scharndorf, Wittemberg, on December 25, 1759. He was a businessman who owned a large textile company in Giegen at the Brenz. He sold it ans with his friend Gottlieb Veygel, for reasons of belief, followed departed countrymen to Russia. In the history of Bessarabian Germans, he is one of their greatest benefactors.
Photos: Karl Ludwig Baisch
Public Service 1844-1883
Public Service 1884-1909
Public Service 1931-1940
Dr. Atto Matt
Public Service 1931-1940
The money willed to the pausch of Sarata by Werner was manged by Executive Gottlieb Veygel, Mayor of Sarata community, and later by the district manager.
Gottlieb Veygel was accorded highest honors during his lifetime as the benefactors of Werner School. During his life of contributing, he left his stamp upon it. His name is as closely allied with the Werner School as that of Christian Fredrich Werner.
In the spring of 1844, the school building was completed. The official opening tookplace June 25, 1844. Its first class consisted of ten scholars. There had been a hard struggle of the government before Veygel that the internal school system met the ultimate will of the bequeather. For Veygel, the main goal for the school was to train religious minded teachers.
In the choice of teacher Karl Ludwig Baisch, the right man was found. The intellect of Christian Friedrich Werner and Gottlieb Veygel gave the status of a Christian learning institution. Their students served for many decades as teachers, sextons, and village secretaries in the German colonies of Bessarabia and South Russia. Besides that, many a colonist’s son received a general education beneficial to the practice of his calling.
Likewise, permanently allied to the Werner School are the names of its teachers and directors: Wilhelm Mutschell, Albert Mausch and Dr. Atto Matt, as former Werner scholars trained its spirit, and preserved its character of its school and handed down.
In spite of various adversities, the Werner School, from its beginning of its break up and to its resettlement in 1940, decisively influenced the lives of the Bessarabians, politically, culturally, and spiritually.
In the spirit of Christian Friedrich Werner and Gottlieb Veygel, we consider it an obligation to remember the Werner School and its special meaning in the lives of the Bessarabian Germans. We must keep its history alive for posterity.
Christian Fiess, Rector in Residence
President of the Heimat Museum
Reference: The home museum of the Germans of Bessarabia is located
in the house of Bessarabian Germans in Stuttgart, Florianstranze
17 (by the bus line 42 from the main train station to Ostenplatz).
Open Monday through Friday from 9-16 o’clock. On Saturday
and Sundays – open to visiting groups by prior appointment.
Christian Fiess, Chairman
7130 Muhlach’er Lindachstranze 37
January 1985 Bessarabia Winter in Basyr jamka
February 1985 Bessarabia A Bessarabian knitting room
March 1985 Bessarabia Orphanage of Alexander Asyls in Sarata
April 1985 Bessarabia Egg gathering on Easter Monday
May 1985 Bessarabia Raising geese on the property inAmara
June 1985 Bessarabia Teachers and students at Werner School
July 1985 Bessarabia Grain harvesting in Zeplitz
August 1985 Bessarabia Draw well on village street in New Pastal
September 1985 Bessarabia Village office in Zarutino
October 1985 Bessarabia The old faithful laundry tub and the washing machine
November 1985 Bessarabia Farewell to the departed at the cemetery
December 1985 Bessarabia Evangelical Lutheran Church at north Bessarabia
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PHOTOS
Title Picture: A resettlement ship carrying women and children arrives in Prahowo. The men follow weeks later.
The Resettlement was a powerful intrusion in the lives of the Bessarabian Germans. It was the result of an agreement between Germany and Soviet Russia in 1940. The encroachment on this group of Germans in Bessarabia was most destructive, but now we see that the Resettlement was the correct decision.
A large number of the resettled Germans are no longer alive today, but the integration of their descendants here in Germany is largely successful. Added to the problems yet to be solved is the preservation of the cultural inheritance of the Bessarabian German people.
January Basyr jamka was a daughter colony loated directly at the Black Sea. The farmers there were progressive and very well-to-do. A popular and much visited vacation center, the German Bad Burnas, was developed on their land.
In summer, visitors at the village enjoyed beautiful greenery. Equally picturesque was the village when it lay under a deep cover of snow.
February From the time of the settlement the farmers were engaged in raising sheep. Until 1870 all items of clothing were made by the women. They spun, knitted, wove and sewed. A change came when the materials were commercialized and fabric manufacturers entered the trade in the German communities of Bessarabia
In the last years before the Resettlement, knitting rooms were established where machines did the work. Yet, like before, the spinning wheel and the knitting needles were ever present.
March Caring for the elderly, aid during epidemics and general health care came into practice in community life as early as the settlement period. But the systems did not provide solutions to the problems. Therefore a welfare organization was established in Sarata in 1864. Cared for at Alexander-Asyl were the elderly, the sick, the mentally disturbed as well as orphans. All were well cared for by Sisters of Mercy. A separate house was provided for orphans in 1930. They remained there until they went into private training for an occupation.
April Egg gathering was a folk game traditionally played by the young on Easter Monday. It was brought to Bessarabia from South Russia by the forefathers and was practiced until Resettlement.
On Easter Monday the young people marched through the streets with music and laughter to invite the entire community to “Eire lesen” (egg gathering). Like all folk games, egg gathering had a meaning. It represented the awakening of nature. The egg is a symbol of the Easter Resurrection and new life. The joy of the season is expressed by Eirelesen (egg gathering) on Easter Monday.
May The farmyards were abundantly over-run with poultry. Geese were everywhere, often in groups of 30-60. Some farmers raised geese for income from the sale of feathers and down. Yet the experts on the business liked to remember delicious roast goose and the excellent smoked Gänzebrüstle (goose cracklings) and Gänzeshenkela (goose thighs).
June Werner school entrance was particularly observed. Our picture show the last class and their teachers at the Werner School in front of the new building.
July With great pride, a farmer in Teplitz shows his son the rewards of his hard work – the ripened crop. During harvest time, the clatter of reaping machines was heard from early morning into the night. The Kopitzen (set-up bundles) stood in long rows in the wide harvest fields of the steppe – an uplifting sight!
August Water was scarce on the steppe and therefore was treasured. Establishing a place depended on whether village water could be found. Oftentimes digging down 42 meters was necessary before good drinking water was reached.
As the New Postal picture illustrates, a drawing well kept in motion by a horse brought up the water.
September Tarutino, founded in 1814 was one of the first three German communities. It was the home of the Public Wellfare Committee consisting of appointed inspectors for Bessarabia. Tarutino supported a weekly marker from its beginnings and became a leader among the German communities in Bessarabia. The People’s Council and the District Consistory were located in Tarutino was well as the Village Office of Management.
October The women were reluctant to abandon their old dependable wash tubs so they were not replaced by the new washing machines.
November On June 28, 1940, Soviet Russia occupied Bessarabia. After long negotiation the time came for the Resettlement Agreement. Within about eight weeks, 93,000 Bessarabian Germans were resettled. It was a tremendous exodus that meant leave-taking from the beloved homeland. Religious farewell services were conducted in churches and cemeteries. For the last time, the graves were lovingly decorated in the painful awareness that the farewells were forever.
December The main area of departure was the southern part of Bessarabia, the “Budschak” – Winkel in German meaning corner. There in a closed area 25 mother colonies were founded from 1814 to 1842. In 1958 the daughter colonies of Akkerman, Bendery (Tighina), and Cahul were established. The community of Neu-Itrymba was founded in 1865 in North Bessarabia on owned land. The inhabitants had up to this time settled on leased lands. They belonged to Württembergers, Badeners, and Pfälzers who before 1812 had emigrated to Poland and from there came to Bessarabia in answer to the call of Alexander I.
Neu-Itrymba belonged to the Kischinew parish.
Translation by Alma M. Herman June 1991