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Home Research Guides Criminal Justice (CJ) 406/606: Crime and Delinquency

Criminal Justice (CJ) 406/606: Crime and Delinquency

Setting Your Preferences in Google Scholar

If using Google Scholar off-campus, follow the instructions at this link in order to access NDSU Libraries' journal subscriptions.

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APA Citations: The Basics

Use the information below as a starting point. If you have additional questions about APA Citations, visit the NDSU Center for Writers or Purdue OWL.


APA Style uses the author-date format for all in-text citations.

A Work by One Author

  • Research on crime by Smith (2009) shows...
  • Research on crime shows... (Smith, 2009).

A Work by Two Authors

  • Research on crime by Smith and Jones (2010) supports
  • Research on crime supports... (Smith & Jones, 2010).


A Work by Three to Five Authors

  • Jones, Smith, and Harris (2012) demonstrate...
  • Research demonstrates... (Jones, Smith, & Harris, 2012).

A Work by Three to Five Authors: Additional Citations

  • Jones et al. (2012) demonstrate...
  • Research demonstrates... (Jones et al., 2012).

Electronic Journal Article

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article.

Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.



Tanner-Smith, E. E., Wilson, S. J., & Lipsey, M. W. (2013). The

comparative effectiveness of outpatient treatment for

adolescent substance abuse: A meta-analysis. Journal of

Substance Abuse Treatment, 44(2), 145-158.



Government Report

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. OR Name of Government Agency.

(Year). Title of document. (Report No. xxx [if available]).

Retrieved from


U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Juvenile Justice and

Delinquency Prevention. (2012). Juvenile arrests 2012.

(OJJDP National Report Series, Bulletin NCJ 248513).

Retrieved from


Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle.

Location: Publisher.


Curry, G. D., Decker, S. H., Pyrooz, D. (2014). Confronting gangs:

Crime and community. New York, NY: Oxford University



Chapter in an Edited Book

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B.

Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Location:



Tedeschi, J. T. (1997). Social interactionist interpretation of

the motives for youth violence. In D. W. Osgood and

J. McCord (Eds.). Motivation and delinquency

(pp. 179-222). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska


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