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EMGT 101: Citing Sources


General Resources

If you have questions about citing sources in APA, Chicago, or MLA style please contact the NDSU Center for Writers to schedule a meeting.

The NDSU Center for Writers also provides resources on the Writing Process and Grammar, Usage, and Style.


APA (American Psychological Association)

APA Style uses the author-date format for all in-text citations.

A Work by One Author
Research by Smith (2008) demonstrates…OR…(Smith, 2008)

A Work by Two Authors
Research on tsunamis by Jones and Garcia (2010) shows…OR…(Jones & Garcia, 2010).

A Work by Three to Five Authors
Jones, Garcia, and Smith (2015) demonstrate…OR…(Jones, Garcia, & Smith, 2015)

If you cite this source again in-text, use: Jones et al. (2015)…OR(Jones et al., 2015)

A Work by an Organization
If the author is an organization, agency, or government entity follow the same guidelines as ‘a work by one author’. If the organization is known by an acronym, include the acronym in brackets when cited the first time and use the acronym in all additional citations.

(Federal Emergency Management Agency [FEMA], 2015)…OR…(FEMA, 2015)

 

Quotations

Whenever you directly quote from a source you will need to provide an in-text citation that includes the name of the author, the year of publication/creation, and a page number (if available).

  • According to Smith (2008), “volcanic eruptions are a type of hazard that can significantly damage property and the environment” (p.10).
  • Although rare, “volcanic eruptions are a type of hazard that can significantly damage property and the environment” (Smith, 2008, p. 10).

Summarizing or Paraphrasing
If you choose to summarize or paraphrase from another work you must include the author and year of publication/creation, but including the page number is optional.

  • Even though millions of people only live approximately 60 miles away from an active volcano, certain volcanic eruptions would be more severe than others (Witze, 2015).

After the first line in each reference entry, indent all lines 1/2 inch from the left margin.

Website
Website Name (e.g. name of agency; Author, A.A.). (Year, Month Day). Title of document. Retrieved from

http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

United States Geological Survey. (2016, January 19). Understanding volcanic hazards can save lives. Retrieved from

http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/vhp/hazards.html

 

Electronic Newspaper Article
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from

http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Stack, L. (2016, March 29). Alaskan volcano eases after eruption. New York Times. Retrieved from

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/30/science/earth/alaskan-volcano-eases-after-eruption.html

 

Electronic Journal Article
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page range. Retrieved from

http://www.journalhomepage.com/full/url/ OR doi:10.1108/03090560710821161

Dimitrov, L. I. (2002). Mud volcanoes – The most important pathway for degassing deeply buried sediments. Earth-Science Reviews, 59(1-4), 49-76.

doi:10.1016/S0012-8252(02)00069-7

 

Book
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

Fisher, R. V. (1997). Volcanoes: Crucibles of change. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.


Chicago Manual of Style

Author-Date Format in Chicago Style uses the author-date method for all in-text citations.

A Work by One Author
(Stack 2016)

A Work by Two Authors
(Smith and Jones 2012)

A Work by an Organization
(United States Geological Survey 2016)

A Work that you Quote
If you include a direct quotation, also include the page number within the in-text citation. 
(Dimitrov 2002, 52)

After the first line in each bibliographic entry, indent all lines 1/2 inch from the left margin.

Website

Website Author (e.g. name of agency; Lastname, Firstname). Year. “Name of Webpage.” Date Accessed. http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

United States Geological Survey. 2016. “Understanding Volcanic Hazards Can Save Lives.” Accessed July 7, 2016.

http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/vhp/hazards.html

 

Electronic Newspaper Article

Lastname, Firstname. Year. “Title of Newspaper Article.” Title of Newspaper, Month and Day of Publication. Date Accessed.

http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Stack, Liam. 2016. “Alaskan Volcano Eases After Eruption.” New York Times, March 29. Accessed July 7, 2016. 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/30/science/earth/alaskan-volcano-eases-after-eruption.html

 

Electronic Journal Article

Lastname, Firstname, and Lastname, Firstname. Year. “Title of Journal Article.” Title of Journal Volume:Page Range. Date Accessed.

doi:10.1108/03090560710821161 OR http://www.journalhomepage.com/full/url/

Dimitrov, Lyobomir I. 2002. “Mud Volcanoes – The Most Important Pathway for Degassing Deeply Buried Sediments.”

Earth Science Reviews 59:49-76. Accessed July 7, 2016. doi:10.1016/S0012-8252(02)00069-7

 

Book

Lastname, Firstname. Year. Title of Book. Location: Publisher.

Fisher, Richard V. 1997. Volcanoes: Crucibles of Change. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Note numbers should begin and the number 1 and continue consecutively throughout the paper (1, 2, 3, etc.)

When using the notes and bibliography formats, all sources will include a note and a corresponding bibliographical entry at the end of the paper.

After the first line in each bibliographic entry, indent all lines 1/2 inch from the left margin.

Website

  1. “Name of Webpage,” date accessed, http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/
  2. “Understanding Volcanic Hazards Can Save Lives,” accessed July 7, 2016, http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/vhp/hazards.html

Corresponding Bibliographic Entry

Website author (e.g. name of agency, name of author). “Name of Webpage.” Date Accessed. http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

United States Geological Survey. “Understanding Volcanic Hazards Can Save Lives.” Accessed July 7, 2016.

http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/vhp/hazards.html

 

Electronic Newspaper Article

  1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of Newspaper Article,” Title of Newspaper, Date of Publication, Date Accessed, http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/
  2. Liam Stack, “Alaskan Volcano Eases After Eruption,” New York Times, March 29, 2016, accessed July 7, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/30/science/earth/alaskan-volcano-eases-after-eruption.html

Corresponding Bibliographical Entry

Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Newspaper Article.” Title of Newspaper, Date of Publication. Date Accessed.

http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Stack, Liam. “Alaskan Volcano Eases After Eruption.” New York Times, March 29, 2016. Accessed July 7, 2016.

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/30/science/earth/alaskan-volcano-eases-after-eruption.html

 

Electronic Journal Article

  1. Firstname Lastname and Firstname Lastname, “Title of Journal Article,” Title of Journal Volume (Year): page number, Date Accessed, doi:10.1108/03090560710821161 OR http://www.journalhomepage.com/full/url/
  2. Lyobomir I. Dimitrov, “Mud Volcanoes – The Most Important Pathway for Degassing Deeply Buried Sediments,” Earth Science Reviews 59 (2002):70, accessed July 7, 2016, doi:10.1016/S0012-8252(02)00069-7

Corresponding Bibliographical Entry

Lastname, Firstname, and Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Journal Article.” Title of Journal Volume (Year): page range. Date Accessed.

doi:10.1108/03090560710821161 OR http://www.journalhomepage.com/full/url/

Dimitrov, Lyobomir I. “Mud Volcanoes – The Most Important Pathway for Degassing Deeply Buried Sediments.” Earth Science Reviews

59 (2002):49-76. Accessed July 7, 2016. doi:10.1016/S0012-8252(02)00069-7

 

Book

  1. Firstname Lastname, Title of Book (Location: Publisher, Year), page number.
  2. Richard V. Fisher, Volcanoes: Crucibles of Change (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997), 108.

Corresponding Bibliographical Entry

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Location: Publisher, Year.

Fisher, Richard V. Volcanoes: Crucibles of Change. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997.


MLA (Modern Language Association)

MLA Style uses the author-page format for all in-text citations.

A Work by One Author
Research by Smith demonstrates... (200).

OR...(Smith 200).

A Work by Two to Three Authors
Research by Jones, Garcia, and Smith shows...(30).

OR...(Jones, Garcia, and Smith 30).

A Work by Four or More Authors
Jones et al. demonstrate...(25).

OR...(Jones et al. 25).

A Work by an Organization
If the author is an organization, agency, or corporation follow the same guidelines as ‘a work by one author’.

Research by the United States Geological Survey demonstrates...(45).

OR...(United States Geological Survey, 45)

A Work from a Website
Include the author name, organization name, etc. in the in-text citation. Page numbers or paragraph numbers are not required.

The Volcano Hazards Program seeks...(United States Geological Survey).

After the first line in each works cited entry, indent all lines 1/2 inch from the left margin.

In the most recent edition of MLA, each works cited entry will contain certain 'core elements' when applicable. These include author, title of source, title of container (where it's found) contributors, version, number, publisher, publication date, location, etc.

A Page on a Website
Website Author (e.g. name of agency; Lastname, Firstname, etc.). “Name of Webpage.” Title of Container (e.g. name of entire website),

Publisher (if publisher is the same as the title of container, don't list again), Date Created, URL. Date Accessed (abbreviate month).

United States Geological Survey. “Understanding Volcanic Hazards can Save Lives.” United States Geological Survey,

19 January 2016, http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/vhp/hazards.html. Accessed 7 July 2016.

 

Electronic Newspaper Article
Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Newspaper Article.” Title of Newspaper, Date Created (abbreviate month),

URL, Date Accessed (abbreviate month).

Stack, Liam. “Alaskan Volcano Eases After Eruption.” New York Times, 29 Mar. 2016,

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/30/science/earth/alaskan-volcano-eases-after-eruption.html?_r=0.

Accessed 7 July 2016.

 

Electronic Journal Article
Lastname, Firstname, and Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Journal Article.” Title of Journal, Volume, Issue, Publication Date, Page Range, URL or doi.

Date Accessed (abbreviate month).

Dimitrov, Lyobomir I. “Mud Volcanoes – The Most Important Pathway for Degassing Deeply Buried Sediments.” Earth Science Reviews,

vol. 59, no. 1-4, 2002, pp. 49-76, doi:10.1016/S0012-8252(02)00069-7. Accessed 7 July 2016.

 

Book
Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Date.

Fisher, Richard V. Volcanoes: Crucibles of Change. Princeton University Press, 1997.


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