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NRM 462

Plagiarism, Copyright, and Fair Use

Citing Sources

Style Required for this Class

Springer SocPsych Style 

Note that this style is based on the APA citation style, so you might find some helpful tips from that style guide, or form the Purdue OWL page on APA Citation Style.

Also note that, though it's based the APA style, it also uses a different style for the in-text citation, and some other variations. (See the note at the botton of the Pringer SocPysch Style document for more information.)


Citation Management Tools

EndNote Online (Good to use if you use the Web of Science database often)

Mendeley (Good for storing and annotating PDFs along with the reference/citation informaiton.)

Zotero (Good for use with the Firefox browser and if you use a cite a lot of websites/webpages as sources.)

Finding Images You Can Use

Try a search in Flickr for photos with licenses that allow you to use them without permission.

  1. Run a search
  2. Above the results, locate the Any license drop-down and choose one of the license types:
    • All creative commons
    • Commercial use allowed
    • Modifications allowed
    • Commercial use & mods allowed
    • No known copyright restrictions
    • U.S. Government Works.

Any of the above licensing options should eliminate any "all rights reserved" images from the results list. 

To see what license is attributed to a particular image from the results list

  1. Click on the image to open it.
  2. Under the image viewing area, to the right, you should see some text indicated the date the image was taken and the copyright information. For example:

Click on the license link to view more information about the license.

For information about all Creative Commons (CC) copyright licenses, see

You can also use some advanced settings in Google to search for images with various copyright licenses.

  1. Run a search in Google Images
  2. Click Tools
  3. Click Usage Rights
  4. Select one of the labels

However, do not assume that all images have a 'labeled' correctly. It is best to track the image back to it's original post and try to determine copyright from there.

Try these government websites for some photos and other multimedia. Generally, publications (images and otherwise) are considered public domain materials. However, this is not always the case. (For example, a department may publish a report within which they include an image for which the copyright is still held by the photographer. This is usually indicated in the caption of the photo, or elsewhere in the document.) Always confirm the copyright status of the image before you use it.

Try the Wikimidia Commons. Again, always confirm the copyright status before using an image.

Last updated: 9/19/2018