Effect of Evening Food Composition on Pre-Breakfast Fasting and Overall Glucose Control in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes : A Review
Vannelli, Anna Jane
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This paper reviews current data on medical nutrition therapy (MNT) strategies related to evening food composition and the effect on pre-breakfast fasting and overall blood glucose control in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to locate pertinent articles, and a review of literature was completed. Eight studies related to type 1 diabetes and nine studies related to type 2 diabetes were identified and reviewed. The available evidence shows that people living with type 1 diabetes should consume a daily bedtime snack composed of carbohydrate and protein, but not high in fat. People with type 2 diabetes may not benefit from a bedtime snack, since eliminating the snack does not result in hypoglycemia and studies have not definitively shown that a snack reduces pre-breakfast fasting glucose compared to placebo. People with type 2 diabetes should also avoid a supper meal high in kilocalories.