Brucellosis Epidemiology, Virulence Factors, Control and Molecular Targets to Prevent Bacterial Infectious Diseases
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Brucellosis is a bacterial zoonosis that infects both professional phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells in the hosts. Brucella intracellular survival is important for its virulence. In a study to establish the seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in livestock in Kazo and Buremba sub-counties of Kiruhura district, Uganda, fifty goat and 112 bovine serum samples were tested for Brucella antibodies. The prevalence of Brucella antibodies in goats and cattle was 26.0% and 38.4% respectively, while individual seroprevalence rates by livestock breeds were 10.7% (cross-breed goats), 45.5% (local goat breeds), 49.1% (cross-breed cattle), 31.0% (local cattle breeds), and 17.4% (exotic cattle breeds) (p = 0.001). Sharing of watering points, using surface water for livestock, presence of wildlife on pasture, lack of vaccination was significantly correlated with Brucella seropositivity in livestock. The molecular study on biofilm in Escherichia coli included in this paper revealed that pflA knock out mutations had a significant effect on biofilm amounts when biofilms formed on D-serine and acetate. The ldhA formed generally high bacterial biofilm amounts on all carbon sources as compared to the wild type.