The Biology of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) in Cancer
Kadasah, Sultan Ftayes Saeed
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Overexpression of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) has been implicated in multiple diseases, including several types of cancer. In different types of cancer, RAGE has been shown to promote cell survival by either autophagy or activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. Based on what is known about RAGE, we hypothesized that the RAGE/ligand interaction at the cell surface promotes pancreatic cancer and melanoma cell survival by both pathways, autophagy and NF-κB activation. To study the role of RAGE in pancreatic cancer resistance to chemotherapy, BxPC-3, MIA PaCa-2, PANC-1, and RAGE overexpressing PANC-1 FLR2 cell-lines were used. A significant decrease in cell viability was observed upon gemcitabine treatment with further significant reduction in cell viability upon combination of gemcitabine with the RAGE inhibitor IgG 2A11. In our studies we showed that RAGE plays a central role in pancreatic cancer cell resistance to gemcitabine by increasing autophagy. To test the importance of RAGE localization in mediating drug resistance, three melanoma cell-lines (WM115, WM266, and SK-MEL2) with their daughters, RAGE overexpressing cells (WM115-RAGE, WM266-RAGE, and SK-MEL2-RAGE) were used. Wild type cell-lines only expressed RAGE intracellularly while RAGE overexpressing cells expressed RAGE both at the cell surface and inside cells. We show in this study that only the cell surface RAGE is involved in melanoma resistance to dacarbazine. We next tested the effects of RAGE/RAGE ligand interaction at the cell surface in pancreatic tumor growth. We used two carcinoma cell-lines, PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2, for this purpose. Both cell-lines were transiently transfected with a NF-κB/Luciferase reporter plasmid to test the effects of the interaction between RAGE and its ligands on the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. We observed higher NF-κB activity upon treatment with RAGE ligands (AGE, S100P, and S100A8/A9) compared to non-treated cells. Higher activity of NF-κB was coupled with a higher expression of cyclin D1 and lower expression of p53, NF-κB target genes.